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Battleship Guns: "16 Inch Gun & Turret" 1955 US Navy Training Film for Iowa Class Battleships
 
09:52
NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YvDyice4u-U more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html US Navy Training Film MN-9321c Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/16_inch_(406_mm)/50_caliber_Mark_7_naval_gun The 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 -- United States Naval Gun is the main armament of the Iowa-class battleships. These guns were 66 feet (20 m) long—50 times their 16-inch (406 mm) bore, or 50 calibers, from breechface to muzzle. Each gun weighed about 239,000 pounds (108,000 kg) without the breech, or 267,900 pounds (121,517 kg) with the breech.[1] They fired projectiles weighing from 1,900 to 2,700 pounds (850 to 1,200 kg) at a maximum speed of 2,690 feet per second (820 m/s) with a range of up to 24 miles (39 km). At maximum range the projectile spent almost 1½ minutes in flight. Each turret required a crew of 94 men to operate. The turrets themselves cost US$1.4 million each, to which the cost of the guns had to be added. The turrets were "three-gun", not "triple", because each barrel could be elevated and fired independently. The ships could fire any combination of their guns, including a broadside of all nine. Considering the large mass of the ship, compared to the mass of the projectiles, the ships barely moved sideways at all, even when a full broadside was fired. With the damping effect of the water around the hull it seems that the pressure wave generated by the gunfire was felt much more than the very slight change in lateral velocity. The guns could be elevated from −5 degrees to +45 degrees, moving at up to 12 degrees per second. The turrets could rotate about 300 degrees at about 4 degrees per second and could even be fired back beyond the beam, which is sometimes called "over the shoulder". Within each turret, a red stripe on the wall of the turret, just inches from the railing, marked the boundary of the gun's recoil, providing the crew of each gun turret with a visual reference for the minimum safe distance range. Complementing the 16"/50 caliber Mark 7 gun was a fire control computer, in this case the Ford Instrument Company Mark 8 Range Keeper. This analog computer was used to direct the fire from the battleship's big guns, taking into account several factors such as the speed of the targeted ship, the time it takes for a projectile to travel, and air resistance to the shells fired at a target. At the time the Montana class was set to begin construction, the rangekeepers had gained the ability to use radar data to help target enemy ships and land-based targets. The results of this advance were telling: the rangekeeper was able to track and fire at targets at a greater range and with increased accuracy. This gave the US Navy a major advantage in World War II, as the Japanese did not develop radar or automated fire control to the level of the US Navy. The Mark 7 gun was originally intended to fire the relatively light 2,240-pound (1,020 kg) Mark 5 armor-piercing shell. However, the shell-handling system for these guns was redesigned to use the "super-heavy" 2,700-pound (1,200 kg) APC (Armor Piercing, Capped) Mark 8 shell before any of the Iowa-class battleships were laid down. The large caliber guns were designed to fire two different 16 in (406 mm) shells: an armor piercing round for anti-ship and anti-structure work, and a high explosive round designed for use against unarmored targets and shore bombardment... The propellant consists of small cylindrical grains of smokeless powder with an extremely high burning rate. A maximum charge consists of six silk bags, each filled with 110 pounds of propellant...
Views: 1029315 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: "Gas" 1944 US Army Training Cartoon Mel Blanc; Chuck Jones
 
04:35
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Snafu (Mel Blanc) learns the need of keeping his gas mask at hand when he is attacked by anthropomorphic gas cloud." With a cameo appearance by Bugs Bunny. Directed by Chuck Jones. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." more Private Snafu: Gripes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2TVTd-kQcuo Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntSimW0PlFo Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_(1944_film) Gas is an animated short, directed by Chuck Jones and first released in May, 1944. It features Private Snafu learning the value of a gas mask in warfare. The cartoon was produced by Warner Bros. Cartoons. The script writers for the Snafu cartoons were typically uncredited, though animation historians consider that several of them were written or co-written by Dr. Seuss and Munro Leaf... The film is set in a military camp, with a sign informing viewers that the camp is situated at a distance of 3642,5 miles (5862 kilometers) from Brooklyn. An alarm alerts the soldiers to wear their gas masks and assemble at a predetermined area of the camp. Every soldier rushes to complete the task, except for Snafu who has trouble locating his gas mask case. He is the last soldier to arrive to the assembly grounds, and has yet to actually wear his mask. When Snafu opens the case, he reaches in and retrieves first a sheer bra, then Bugs Bunny, and last his mask. His lack of organization skills earns him the attention of the officers. He is singled out for additional drill exercises with his gas mask. Following his training, an exhausted Snafu discards his gas mask and leaves it with the trash waiting to be collected. He proceeds to rest under a tree in an idyllic meadow, at a short distance from the camp. While he rests, a passing airplane sprays poison gas. The gas takes the form of an anthropomorphic gas cloud and parachutes its way to the ground. Spotting Snafu as the easiest target around, it begins surrounding him. As Snafu relaxes under the tree, he comments on "the smell of new-mown hay, apple blossoms, flypaper..." whereupon he finally realizes that he is in danger of being gassed. Snafu barely manages to escape breathing the gas and "frantically chases the trash truck" to retrieve his gas mask. While the gas cloud seems to sweep over both the soldier and the truck, Snafu emerges triumphant. He had managed to wear the mask before breathing the poison. Night finds Snafu sleeping with his gas mask at hand, "in a lover's embrace". In a flirtatious manner, the mask comments "I didn't know you cared" and the short ends. Analysis The extensive use of chemical weapons in World War I had left a lasting impression. During World War II, there were fears that chemical warfare would again be used against both military targets and civilians. In practice, all major combatants of the War stockpiled chemical weapons, but these weapons were rarely used and played a minimal role in the conflict. The short was part of the ongoing efforts of the military to convince soldiers that their gas masks were more than "dead weight". As the war progressed and the expected chemical warfare did not occur, soldiers were increasingly likely to view both the masks and their training in using them as essentially useless.
Views: 70703 Jeff Quitney
A Step Saving Kitchen 1949 United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Color
 
13:31
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://kitchen.quickfound.net The USDA describes and demonstrates the results of their efforts to develop a modern "step-saving" kitchen. NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RF3JAY8Gyz4 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitchen A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cooking and food preparation. In the West, a modern residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold running water, a refrigerator and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. Many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher and other electric appliances. The main function of a kitchen is cooking or preparing food but it may also be used for dining, food storage, entertaining, dishwashing and laundry... History The evolution of the kitchen is linked to the invention of the cooking range or stove and the development of water infrastructure capable of supplying water to private homes. Until the 18th century, food was cooked over an open fire. Technical advances in heating food in the 18th and 19th centuries, changed the architecture of the kitchen. Before the advent of modern pipes, water was brought from an outdoor source such as wells, pumps or springs. Antiquity The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard for women. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen. Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room... In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own; they did their cooking in large public kitchens. Some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking. Wealthy Romans had relatively well-equipped kitchens... Middle Ages Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building. The "kitchen area" was between the entrance and the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was typically more than one kitchen... In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke. The first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century). These stoves, called kamado, were typically made of clay and mortar; they were fired with wood or charcoal through a hole in the front and had a hole in the top, into which a pot could be hanged by its rim. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come... Colonial America... Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen. Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. Early models included the Franklin stove around 1740, which was a furnace stove intended for heating, not for cooking. Benjamin Thompson in England designed his "Rumford stove" around 1800. This stove was much more energy efficient than earlier stoves; it used one fire to heat several pots, which were hung into holes on top of the stove and were thus heated from all sides instead of just from the bottom. However, his stove was designed for large kitchens; it was too big for domestic use. The "Oberlin stove" was a refinement of the technique that resulted in a size reduction; it was patented in the U.S. in 1834 and became a commercial success with some 90,000 units sold over the next 30 years. These stoves were still fired with wood or coal. Although the first gas street lamps were installed in Paris, London, and Berlin at the beginning of the 1820s and the first U.S. patent on a gas stove was granted in 1825, it was not until the late 19th century that using gas for lighting and cooking became commonplace in urban areas... The Hoosier Manufacturing Co. of Indiana adapted an existing furniture piece, the baker's cabinet, which had a similar structure of a table top with some cabinets above it (and frequently flour bins beneath) to solve the storage problem. By rearranging the parts and taking advantage of (then) modern metal working, they were able to produce a well-organized, compact cabinet which answered the home cook's needs for storage and working space. A distinctive feature of the Hoosier cabinet is its accessories. As originally supplied, they were equipped with various racks and other hardware to hold and organize spices and various staples...
Views: 430050 Jeff Quitney
WWII Infantry Full Combat Pack, US Army; from The Big Picture TV-211 (circa 1951)
 
05:01
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Colonel Quinn appears and explains the clothing, equipment and food available to the combat infantryman." Combat pack, ammo belt, canteen, bayonet, first aid kit, mess kit, cargo pack, entrenching tool, etc, are shown. Excerpt from "The Big Picture" episode TV-211 The Big Picture TV Series playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Jwfz5l_3NRAcCYURbOW2Fl Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haversack ...Haversacks were in use during the American Civil War, as recounted in Grant's memoirs, "In addition to the supplies transported by boat, the men were to carry forty rounds of ammunition in the cartridge-boxes and four days' rations in haversacks." In 1910 the U.S. Army adopted the M-1910 haversack (or M10) as the standard back pack for all infantrymen. The pack is essentially a sheet of rugged khaki-colored canvas that folds around its contents (bedroll, clothing, daily rations, and assorted personal items), and is held together by flaps and adjustable buckle-straps. The two shoulder straps are designed to attach to a web belt or suspender configuration. The exterior of the pack has loops, rings, and grommet tabs for attaching a bayonet sheath, a "meat can" (mess kit) pouch, and a canvas carrier for a short-handled shovel (a.k.a. entrenchment tool). This pack remained in service, most notably during World War I, until 1928 when it was superseded by the slightly modified M-1928 pack. However, thousands of surplus M10s were issued during World War II to compensate for shortages in war-time textile production. The M-1928 haversack (M28) continued to be the standard-issue army back pack for the duration of World War II. The only exceptions being officers, engineers, paratroops, and medics who were issued the more compact M-1936 Musette Bag. The M28 was gradually phased out starting in 1944 with the introduction of the olive drab M-1944 and M-1945 Canvas Combat Field Pack configuration. This new two-part design, based on the Marine M-1941 system, used a much smaller back pack (for rations, clothes, ammunition, and messkit), and a separate Cargo Bag that attached to the bottom for extra clothes, shoes, and misc. items. The upper field pack had the same type of grommet tabs and loops as the M-1928 for attaching a bayonet and entrenchment tool plus straps for securing a "horseshoe" bedroll...
Views: 110938 Jeff Quitney
Car Transmissions & Synchromesh: "Spinning Levers" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics 10min
 
09:40
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Auto mechanics playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C '"The transmission in the modern motorcar -- the mechanism that makes it possible to have three forward speeds and a reverse -- is a series of levers, levers that spin." VS cartoon of Archimedes trying to move earth with a lever extending from the moon or another planet in outer space; CU cartoon of Archimedes says "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world." CU disembodied hands using antique can opener to open a can of peaches; CU can open cutting through top of can. Two boys playing on a seesaw. CU pitch bar tool inserted between train wheel and track; man cranks large lever to move freight car along track; CU disembodied arm pumps lever lifting antique car off ground. VS man demonstrates basics of the lever using triangular piece as fulcrum and a long metal piece, man attaches 10 lbs. weight to one end of the bar and a 5 lbs. weight to the other end; man hangs various weights from both ends of the bar balancing the two by moving the fulcrum to various points along the bar; man demonstrates how a gear is constructed through numerous interlocking levers. VS stop-motion animation of two wheels with paddles added one by one turning wheels into paddle wheels and then into interlocking gears; cuts to more sophisticated gear; cuts to metal gears; VS CU different types of machine gears, worm gears, bevel gears, lopsided gears. Disembodied arm pieces together piece by piece a basic motor with various gear components; superimposed text appears labeling various parts; superimposed arrows identify different gears; motor begins to turn; cuts to CU car drives across frame; cuts back to crude motor; camera pans to Revolutions Per Minute dial which reads 100 rpm, camera pans to another RPM instrument dial which reads 30 rpm; CU crude model of gears in motor, superimposed arrows show flow of energy through the system. CU RPM instrument dial reads 60 rpm; CU churning gears of motor, superimposed arrows she flow of energy through gear system; VS man demonstrates on gears how shifting to various gears works. CU arrow point to 90 rpm on deal labeled Revolutions Per Minute; VS man demonstrating different gears. Great shot 4 lanes of cars stopped at stoplight on city street; Travel Bureau sign in background. CU disembodied hand in white glove shifts clutch of car; CU motor shifting gears; CU tire with Chevrolet hubcap begins to move; 1920s and 1930s cars stopped at traffic light begin to move; CU inside car woman shifts gears; car driving down tree-lined highway in possibly New York, what appears to be the Statue of Liberty is seen off in the distance. Woman enters drivers seat of Chevrolet, man waves start flag; car drives off down street; CU disembodied woman's foot on gas pedal beside break and clutch pedal with Chevrolet logos; CU speedometer shows car hitting 60 mph; CU woman downshifts; CU speedometer goes down to 35 mph; car stops at bottom of hill. CU sign along rugged road 'Steep Hill Use Second Gear"' NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69TC-GLnfDQ Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a live axle. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device... Manual Manual transmission come in two basic types: - a simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized / non-synchronous system, where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash", - and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised, or synchronized / synchromesh systems, where typically diagonal cut helical (or sometimes either straight-cut, or double-helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement...
Views: 1725319 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: Booby Traps 1944 US Army Training Film Cartoon, Mel Blanc, Bob Clampett
 
04:19
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu learns about the hazards of enemy booby traps the hard way. This is one of 26 Private SNAFU ('Situation Normal, All Fouled Up) cartoons made by the US Army Signal Corps to educate and boost the morale the troops. Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWNpnkW1sVk Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). more Private Snafu: The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Views: 571873 Jeff Quitney
Bailing Out 1949 US Navy Pilot Training Film; Animated Cartoon
 
09:30
US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 Pilot Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html On bailing out from an aircraft in trouble-- don't wait until it's too late... The narrator sounds like Paul Frees. US Navy Training Film MN-4353A Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parachuting Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Parachuting, or skydiving, is a method of transiting from a high point to Earth with the aid of gravity, involving the control of speed during the descent with the use of a parachute. It may involve more or less free-falling which is a period during the parachute has not been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity. The first parachute jump in history was made by André-Jacques Garnerin, the inventor of the parachute, on October 22 1797. Garnerin tested his contraption by leaping from a hydrogen balloon 3,200 feet (980 m) above Paris. Garnerin's parachute bore little resemblance to today's parachutes, however, as it was not packed into any sort of container and did not feature a ripcord. The first intentional freefall jump with a ripcord-operated deployment was not made until over a century later by Leslie Irvin in 1919. While Georgia Broadwick made an earlier freefall in 1914 when her static line became entangled with her jump aircraft's tail assembly, her freefall descent was not planned. Broadwick cut her static line and deployed her parachute manually, only as a means of freeing herself from the aircraft to which she had become entangled. The military developed parachuting technology as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, and later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1952... Manually exiting an aircraft and parachuting to safety has been widely used by aviators (especially military aviators and aircrew), and passengers to escape an aircraft that could not otherwise land safely. While this method of escape is relatively rare in modern times, it was commonly used in World War I by military aviators, and utilized extensively throughout the air wars of World War II. In modern times, the most common means of escape from an aircraft in distress is via an ejection seat. Said system is usually operated by the pilot, aircrew member, or passenger, by engaging an activation device manually. In most designs, this will lead to the seat being propelled out of and away from the aircraft carrying the occupant with it, by means of either an explosive charge or a rocket propulsion system. Once clear of the aircraft, the ejection seat will deploy a parachute, although some older models entrusted this step to manual activation by the seat's occupant...
Views: 229728 Jeff Quitney
Propfan: "Back to Propellers" 1987 NASA Lewis Research Center Fuel Efficient Aircraft Propulsion
 
02:53
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "The video shows the unique propfan design. The propfan is designed to achieve the speeds and altitudes of jets while only using half the normal amount of fuel." Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propfan A propfan was first defined as a small diameter, highly loaded multiple bladed variable pitch propulsor having swept blades with thin advanced airfoil sections, integrated with a nacelle contoured to retard the airflow through the blades thereby reducing compressibility losses and designed to operate with a turbine engine and using a single stage reduction gear resulting in high performance. The propfan concept was first revealed by Carl Rohrbach and Bruce Metzger of the Hamilton Standard Division of United Technologies in 1975 and was patented by Robert Cornell and Carl Rohrbach of Hamilton Standard in 1979. Later work by General Electric on similar propulsors was done under the name unducted fan, which was a modified turbofan engine, with the fan placed outside the engine nacelle on the same axis as the compressor blades. Propfans are also known as ultra-high bypass (UHB) engines and, most recently, open flux rotor jet engines. The design is intended to offer the speed and performance of a turbofan, with the fuel economy of a turboprop... Limitations and solutions Propeller blade tip speed limit Turboprops have an optimum speed below about 450 mph (700 km/h). The reason is that all propellers lose efficiency at high speed, due to an effect known as wave drag that occurs just below supersonic speeds. This powerful form of drag has a sudden onset, and led to the concept of a sound barrier when it was first encountered in the 1940s. In the case of a propeller, this effect can happen any time the propeller is spun fast enough that the blade tips near the speed of sound, even if the aircraft is motionless on the ground. The most effective way to counteract this problem (to some degree) is by adding more blades to the propeller, allowing it to deliver more power at a lower rotational speed. This is why many World War II fighter designs started with two or three-blade propellers and by the end of the war were using up to five blades... A method of decreasing wave drag was discovered by German researchers in 1935—sweeping the wing backwards. Today, almost all aircraft designed to fly much above 450 mph (700 km/h) use a swept wing. In the 1970s, Hamilton Standard started researching propellers with similar sweep... The propfan concept was developed to deliver 35% better fuel efficiency than contemporary turbofans. In static and air tests on a modified Douglas DC-9, propfans reached a 30% improvement over the OEM turbofans. This efficiency came at a price, as one of the major problems with the propfan is noise... Aircraft with propfans - Antonov An-70 - Beriev A-40 - EcoJet - McDonnell Douglas MD-94X
Views: 171932 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Suspensions: "Over the Waves" 1938 Chevrolet Division General Motors
 
09:20
Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "How the Chevrolet suspension system smooths out a rough ride." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the car's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different... Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of leaf springs in catapults was later refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a sturdy tree branch could be used as a spring, such as with a bow. Horse drawn vehicles By the early 19th century, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were made of low-carbon steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs. The British steel springs were not well suited for use on America's rough roads of the time, and could even cause coaches to collapse if cornered too fast. In the 1820s, the Abbot Downing Company of Concord, New Hampshire developed a system whereby the bodies of stagecoaches were supported on leather straps called "thoroughbraces", which gave a swinging motion instead of the jolting up and down of a spring suspension (the stagecoach itself was sometimes called a "thoroughbrace"). Automobiles Henri Fournier on his uniquely dampened and racewinning 'Mors Machine', photo taken 1902 Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse drawn vehicles. However, horse drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine. In 1901 Mors of Germany first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers. With the advantage of a dampened suspension system on his 'Mors Machine', Henri Fournier won the prestigious Paris-to-Berlin race on the 20th of June 1901. Fournier's superior time was 11 hrs 46 min 10 sec, while the best competitor was Léonce Girardot in a Panhard with a time of 12 hrs 15 min 40 sec. In 1920, Leyland used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932... The spring rate (or suspension rate) is a component in setting the vehicle's ride height or its location in the suspension stroke. Vehicles which carry heavy loads will often have heavier springs to compensate for the additional weight that would otherwise collapse a vehicle to the bottom of its travel (stroke). Heavier springs are also used in performance applications where the loading conditions experienced are more extreme. Springs that are too hard or too soft cause the suspension to become ineffective because they fail to properly isolate the vehicle from the road... Wheel rate is the effective spring rate when measured at the wheel. This is as opposed to simply measuring the spring rate alone. Wheel rate is usually equal to or considerably less than the spring rate... Roll couple percentage is the effective wheel rate, in roll, of each axle of the vehicle as a ratio of the vehicle's total roll rate. Roll couple percentage is critical in accurately balancing the handling of a vehicle... Weight transfer during cornering, acceleration or braking is usually calculated per individual wheel and compared with the static weights for the same wheels...
Views: 825895 Jeff Quitney
1956 Chevy Stunt Driving: "Thrill Driver's Choice" 1956 Chevrolet; Joie Chitwood Thrill Show
 
09:19
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ Joie Chitwood Thrill Show drivers exclusively drive 1956 Chevrolets. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/b... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joie_Chi... George Rice "Joie" Chitwood (April 14, 1912 - January 3, 1988) was an American racecar driver and businessman. He is best known as a daredevil in the Joie Chitwood Thrill Show. Born in Denison, Texas of Cherokee Indian ancestry, he was dubbed "Joie" by a track promoter and the name stuck. Racing career Chitwood started his racecar driving career in 1934 at a dirt track in Winfield, Kansas. From there, he began racing sprint cars. In 1939 and 1940 he won the AAA East Coast Sprint car championship. He switched to the CSRA and won its title in 1942. Between 1940 and 1950 competed at the Indianapolis 500 seven times finishing fifth on three different occasions. He was the first man ever to wear a safety belt at the Indy 500. Joie Chitwood Thrill Show Chitwood also operated the "Joie Chitwood Thrill Show", an exhibition of auto stunt driving that became so successful he gave up racing. Often called "Hell Drivers," he had five units that for more than forty years toured across North America thrilling audiences in large and small towns alike with their death-defying automobile stunts. His show was so popular, that in January 1967, the performance at the Islip Speedway, New York was broadcast on ABC television's Wide World of Sports. On May 13, 1978, Joie Chitwood set a world record when he drove a Chevrolet Chevette for 5.6 miles (9.0 km) on just 2 wheels. His sons, Joie Jr. and Tim both joined the auto thrill show and continued to run the "Joie Chitwood Chevy Thunder Show" after their father's retirement. His grandson, Joie Chitwood III, is the President of Daytona International Speedway and a former president of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The show was featured during season 3 of CHiPs in an episode entitled "Thrill Show". Chitwood's show was credited by Evel Knievel as being his inspiration to become a daredevil. Stuntman Chitwood was frequently hired by Hollywood film studios to either do stunt driving for films or to act as auto-stunt coordinator. On a few occasions he appeared in a minor role, notably with Clark Gable and Barbara Stanwyck in the 1950 film about auto racing, To Please a Lady. In 1973, Chitwood is credited as a Stunt Coordinator for the hugely successful James Bond film Live and Let Die (film), where he was also the stunt driver and acted in a minor part. Safety Consultant Chitwood also acted as a car safety consultant, intentionally crashing vehicles for subsequent investigation. He had intentionally crashed more than 3000 vehicles by the time he appeared on the game show I've Got A Secret in 1965. Retirement When Chitwood retired, his sons took over the business. Joie Chitwood died in 1988, aged 75, in Tampa Bay, Florida. He was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993. He was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 2010 in the Historic category.
Views: 200901 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU "The Home Front" 1943 US Army Cartoon Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin, World War II
 
04:25
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu imagines the good times his family is having back home while he's stationed in the Arctic. Technical Fairy First Class shows that even his family is helping with the war effort - his dad building tanks, his mom planting a Victory Garden, Grandpa riveting battleships, and his girl joining the WAC's and even the family's horse is pitching in. This is one of 26 Private SNAFU ('Situation Normal, All Fouled Up) cartoons made by the US Army Signal Corps to educate and boost the morale the troops. Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Views: 1657917 Jeff Quitney
B-17 Waist Gunner Mel Blanc: "Position Firing" 1944 USAAF Training Film; WWII Aerial Gunnery Cartoon
 
14:10
Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html Animated cartoon film telling and showing B-17 waist gunners how to target enemy fighters on their pursuit curve and lead the target properly. "This animated comic film presents side gunner Trigger Joe (voiced by Mel Blanc) as he was trained to calculate approach arcs, speed, and the distance of enemy aircraft. Produced by the First Motion Picture Unit during World War II." US Army Air Forces Training Film TF1-3366 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_B-17_Flying_Fortress Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ ...While models A through D of the B-17 were designed defensively, the large-tailed B-17E was the first model primarily focused on offensive warfare. The B-17E was an extensive revision of the Model 299 design: The fuselage was extended by 10 ft (3.0 m); a much larger rear fuselage, vertical tail fin, rudder, and horizontal stabilizer were added to the design; a gunner's position was added in the new tail; the nose (especially the bombardier's well-framed, ten-panel nose glazing) remained relatively the same as the earlier B through D versions had, but with the addition of a Sperry electrically powered manned dorsal gun turret just behind the cockpit, and the similarly powered (also built by Sperry) manned ventral ball turret just aft of the bomb bay... Two experimental versions of the B-17 were flown under different designations, the XB-38 Flying Fortress and the YB-40 Flying Fortress. The XB-38 was an engine testbed for Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engines... The YB-40 was a heavily armed modification of the standard B-17 used before the North American P-51 Mustang, an effective long-range fighter, became available to act as escort. Additional armament included an additional dorsal turret in the radio room, a remotely operated and fired Bendix-built "chin turret" and twin .50 in (12.7 mm) guns in each of the waist positions. The ammunition load was over 11,000 rounds. All of these modifications made the YB-40 well over 10,000 lb (4,500 kg) heavier than a fully loaded B-17F. The YB-40s with their numerous heavy modifications had trouble keeping up with the lighter bombers once they had dropped their bombs, and so the project was abandoned and finally phased out in July 1943. The final production blocks of the B-17F from Douglas' plants did, however, adopt the YB-40's "chin turret", giving them a much-improved forward defense capability. By the time the definitive B-17G appeared, the number of guns had been increased from seven to thirteen, the designs of the gun stations were finalized, and other adjustments were completed. The B-17G was the final version of the Flying Fortress, incorporating all changes made to its predecessor, the B-17F, and in total 8,680 were built, the last (by Lockheed) on 28 July 1945. Many B-17Gs were converted for other missions such as cargo hauling, engine testing and reconnaissance. Initially designated SB-17G, a number of B-17Gs were also converted for search-and-rescue duties, later to be redesignated B-17H...
Views: 752349 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU: "No Buddy Atoll" 1945 US Army Trainng Cartoon; Mel Blanc, Chuck Jones
 
04:57
more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Private Snafu and a Japanese sailor simultaneously land on a deserted island, discover each other and fight it out until the private kills the sailor and attempts to sell his sword as a souvenir." Directed by Chuck Jones. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." more Private Snafu: Gripes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2TVTd-kQcuo Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ntSimW0PlFo Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Views: 45889 Jeff Quitney
Orion Exploration Mission 1 Animation 2013 NASA
 
02:24
more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/orion_cev_news_and_links.html Public domain film from NASA. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exploration_Mission_1 Exploration Mission 1 or EM-1 (previously known as Space Launch System 1 or SLS-1) is the first planned flight of the Space Launch System and the second uncrewed test flight of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Set to launch on December 17, 2017 (later postponed to November 2018) from Launch Complex 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion spacecraft would perform a circumlunar trajectory during the seven day mission. The Block 1 version of SLS used on this mission will consist of two five-segment Solid Rocket Boosters, four RS-25D engines built for the Space Shuttle program and a Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. EM-1 is intended to demonstrate the integrated spacecraft systems prior to a crewed flight and demonstrate a high speed reentry (11 km/s) on Orion's thermal protection system. On January 16, 2013, NASA announced that the European Space Agency would build Orion's service module based off of its Automated Transfer Vehicle, so the flight could also be regarded as a test of ESA hardware as well as American. http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/systems/sls/eft1_ksc.html ...The first SLS mission, Exploration Mission 1, in 2017 will launch an uncrewed Orion to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft prior to a crewed flight. The second SLS mission, Exploration Mission 2, is targeted for 2021 and will launch Orion and a crew of up to four American astronauts. The Orion Program is managed by NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The SLS Program is managed by the Marshall Center. Both programs are managed by the Explorations Systems Development Division within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. http://scitech.quickfound.net/astro/orion_cev_news_and_links.html Exploration is the name of the NASA directorate that has overall responsibility for developing new launch vehicles and spacecraft. The Lockheed Martin-built manned spacecraft component of the system, named the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV, formerly called the Crew Exploraton Vehicle, CEV), was originally intended to be operational by 2014 (with "boilerplate" tests by 2009 and unmanned flight tests of the actual vehicle by 2012), and to be capable of carrying astronauts to the moon by 2020. The first unmannned Orion test flight, Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), is now targeted for early 2014. Because the SLS Shuttle-replacement launch vehicle will not be ready until almost four years later, this test will ride on a Delta IV-Heavy launch vehicle. Tests of the Orion Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) began in 2011. Testing of the more advanced Orion Ground Test Article (GTA) are expected to begin at Langley Research Center in late 2012 or early 2013. Construction of the first Orion for unmanned orbital tests began in September, 2011. The SLS launch vehicle for Orion is not expected to fly until 2017 at the earliest...
Views: 150243 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Brakes: "Facts on Friction" 1934 General Motors
 
09:30
NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJTmx_cxS30 more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term "drum brake" usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disk brake, it is sometimes called a "pinch drum brake", although such brakes are relatively rare. A related type of brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum, called a band brake. History The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault, though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier. In the first drum brakes, the shoes were mechanically operated with levers and rods or cables. From the mid-1930s the shoes were operated with oil pressure in a small wheel cylinder and pistons (as in the picture), though some vehicles continued with purely-mechanical systems for decades. Some designs have two wheel cylinders. The shoes in drum brakes are subject to wear and the brakes needed to be adjusted regularly until the introduction of self-adjusting drum brakes in the 1950s. In the 1960s and 1970s brake drums on the front wheels of cars were gradually replaced with disc brakes and now practically all cars use disc brakes on the front wheels, with many offering disc brakes on all wheels. However, drum brakes are still often used for handbrakes as it has proven very difficult to design a disc brake suitable for holding a car when it is not in use. Moreover, it is very easy to fit a drum handbrake inside a disc brake so that one unit serves as both service brake and handbrake. Early type brake shoes contained asbestos. When working on brake systems of older cars, care must be taken not to inhale any dust present in the brake assembly. The United States Federal Government began to regulate asbestos production, and brake manufacturers had to switch to non-asbestos linings. Owners initially complained of poor braking with the replacements; however, technology eventually advanced to compensate. A majority of daily-driven older vehicles have been fitted with asbestos-free linings. Many other countries also limit the use of asbestos in brakes. Some of the major components of the drum brake assembly are the back plate, the brake drum and shoe, the wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. Back plate The back plate serves as the base on which all the components are assembled. It attaches to the axle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. Since all the braking operations exert pressure on the back plate, it needs to be very strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, and automatic brake-shoe adjuster were also added in recent years. Brake drum The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron which is heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it, and rotates with the wheel and axle... Wheel cylinder One wheel cylinder is used for each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of the wheel cylinder. When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, the pistons are pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the brakes are not being applied, the piston is returned to its original position by the force of the brake shoe return springs... Brake shoe Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either rivetted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table generally has three "V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs. The nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate to which the shoes are installed...
Views: 254089 Jeff Quitney
Car Brakes: "Hydraulics" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics
 
07:21
more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net "PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS EXPLAINED, CENTERING ON THE VALUE FOR SAFETY & COMFORT OF HYDRAULIC BRAKES." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mTO7vlITLek Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drum_brake A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term "drum brake" usually means a brake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside of the drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes, similar to a conventional disk brake, it is sometimes called a "pinch drum brake", although such brakes are relatively rare. A related type of brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping around the outside of a drum, called a band brake. The modern automobile drum brake was invented in 1902 by Louis Renault, whose unique genius inspired him to use woven asbestos lining for the drum brakes lining as there were no other alternatives that dissipated heat like the asbestos lining, though a less-sophisticated drum brake had been used by Maybach a year earlier... Components Some of the major components of the drum brake assembly are the back plate, the brake drum and shoe, the wheel cylinder, and various springs and pins. Back plate The back plate serves as the base on which all the components are assembled. It attaches to the axle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. Since all the braking operations exert pressure on the back plate, it needs to be very strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, and automatic brake-shoe adjuster were also added in recent years... Brake drum The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron which is heat-conductive and wear-resistant. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it, and rotates with the wheel and axle. As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of the drum, friction heat can reach as high as 600 °F (316 °C). Wheel cylinder One wheel cylinder is used for each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of the wheel cylinder. When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, the pistons are pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the brakes are not being applied, the piston is returned to its original position by the force of the brake shoe return springs. The parts of the wheel cylinder are as follows: Brake shoe Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction material is either rivetted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is called the Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware, parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheel cylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the lining table generally has three "V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs. The nibs rest against the support pads of the backing plate to which the shoes are installed. Each brake assembly has two shoes, a primary and secondary. The primary shoe is located toward the front of the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently than the secondary shoe. Quite often the two shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Linings must be resistant against heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected by fluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials which make up the brake shoe include, friction modifiers (which can include can include graphite and cashew nut shells), powdered metal such as lead, zinc, brass, aluminium and other metals that resist heat fade, binders, curing agents and fillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. Automatic self-adjuster The self-adjuster is used to adjust the distance between the brake shoe and the drum automatically as brake shoes wear...
Views: 189565 Jeff Quitney
Combat: "Kill Or Be Killed" 1943 War Department; World War II; US Army Training Film
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "Fighting Men: Kill or Be Killed - Department of Defense. Department of the Army... This military training film shows that there are no rules of sportsmanship or fair play on the battlefield. As expressed in the film: 'Anything goes when the stakes are kill or be killed.' Soldiers were encouraged to use any weapon that comes to hand which could be anything from a rifle, to a bayonet or hand grenade." US Army training film TF21-1024 Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts, and with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand-to-hand_combat Hand-to-hand combat (sometimes abbreviated as HTH or H2H) is a lethal or nonlethal physical confrontation between two or more persons at very short range (grappling distance) that does not involve the use of firearms or other distance weapons. While the phrase "hand-to-hand" appears to refer to unarmed combat, the term is generic and may include use of striking weapons used at grappling distance such as knives, sticks, batons, or improvised weapons such as entrenching tools. While the term hand-to-hand combat originally referred principally to engagements by military personnel on the battlefield, it can also refer to any personal physical engagement by two or more combatants, including police officers and civilians. Combat within close quarters (to a range just beyond grappling distance) is commonly termed close combat or close-quarters combat. It may include lethal and nonlethal weapons and methods depending upon the restrictions imposed by civilian law, military rules of engagement, or personal ethical codes. Close combat using firearms or other distance weapons by military combatants at the tactical level is modernly referred to as close quarter battle. The U.S. Army uses the term combatives to describe various military martial art combat systems used in hand-to-hand combat training, systems which may incorporate hybrid techniques from several different martial arts and combat sports... Sometimes called close combat, Close Quarters Combat, or CQC, World War II-era American combatives were largely codified by William Ewart Fairbairn and Eric Anthony Sykes. Also known for their eponymous Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife, Fairbairn and Sykes had worked in the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP) and helped teach police officers as well as units of the U.S. Marine Corps and the Royal Marines a quick and effective and simple technique for fighting with or without weapons in melee situations. Similar training was provided to British Commandos, the Devil's Brigade, OSS, U.S. Army Rangers and Marine Raiders. Fairbairn at one point called this system Defendu, and later publishing an instructional training manual on the system. Defendu was later revised into a method of "quick kill" hand-to-hand combat training for soldiers by Fairbairn which he called "gutter fighting". The Fairbairn system was adopted and expanded by a U.S. military close combat instructor, Rex Applegate, for training U.S. military and paramilitary forces. Similar training was provided to British Commandos, the Devil's Brigade, OSS, U.S. Army Rangers and the Marine Raiders. Applegate would later describe this method of training in his own book, Kill or Get Killed. Other combat systems having their origins in military combat include European Unifight, Chinese Sanshou, Soviet/Russian sambo and Rukopaschnij Boj, Israeli Kapap and Krav Maga and Indian Bison System. The prevalence and style of hand-to-hand combat training often changes based on perceived need. Elite units such as special forces and commando units tend to place higher emphasis on hand-to-hand combat training. Although hand-to-hand fighting was accorded less importance in major militaries after World War II, insurgency conflicts such as the Vietnam War, low intensity conflict and urban warfare have prompted many armies to pay more attention to this form of combat. When such fighting includes firearms designed for close-in fighting, it is often referred to as Close Quarters Battle (CQB) at the platoon or squad level, or Military Operations on Urban Terrain (MOUT) at higher tactical levels...
Views: 133686 Jeff Quitney
Stirling Cycle Engine: "The Stirling Engine: A Wave of the Future" 1992 NASA
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "This video describes the Stirling engine, an external combustion engine which creates heat energy to power the motor, and can use many types of fuel. It can be used for both stationary and propulsion purposes and has advantages of better fuel economy and cleaner exhaust than internal combustion engines. The engine is shown being road tested at Langley Air Force Base." Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stirling_engine A Stirling engine is a heat engine operating by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas, the working fluid, at different temperature levels such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work. Or more specifically, a closed-cycle regenerative heat engine with a permanently gaseous working fluid, where closed-cycle is defined as a thermodynamic system in which the working fluid is permanently contained within the system, and regenerative describes the use of a specific type of internal heat exchanger and thermal store, known as the regenerator. It is the inclusion of a regenerator that differentiates the Stirling engine from other closed cycle hot air engines. Originally conceived in 1816 as an industrial prime mover to rival the steam engine, its practical use was largely confined to low-power domestic applications for over a century. The Stirling engine is noted for its high efficiency compared to steam engines, quiet operation, and the ease with which it can use almost any heat source. This compatibility with alternative and renewable energy sources has become increasingly significant as the price of conventional fuels rises, and also in light of concerns such as peak oil and climate change. This engine is currently exciting interest as the core component of micro combined heat and power (CHP) units, in which it is more efficient and safer than a comparable steam engine... Robert Stirling was the Scottish inventor of the first practical example of a closed cycle air engine in 1816... Functional description The engine is designed so that the working gas is generally compressed in the colder portion of the engine and expanded in the hotter portion resulting in a net conversion of heat into work. An internal Regenerative heat exchanger increases the Stirling engine's thermal efficiency compared to simpler hot air engines lacking this feature. Key components As a consequence of closed cycle operation, the heat driving a Stirling engine must be transmitted from a heat source to the working fluid by heat exchangers and finally to a heat sink. A Stirling engine system has at least one heat source, one heat sink and up to five heat exchangers. Some types may combine or dispense with some of these. Heat source The heat source may be provided by the combustion of a fuel and, since the combustion products do not mix with the working fluid and hence do not come into contact with the internal parts of the engine, a Stirling engine can run on fuels that would damage other types of engines' internals... Other suitable heat sources include concentrated solar energy, geothermal energy, nuclear energy, waste heat and bioenergy. If solar power is used as a heat source, regular solar mirrors and solar dishes may be utilised. The use of Fresnel lenses and mirrors has also been advocated, for example in planetary surface exploration... Heater / hot side heat exchanger In small, low power engines this may simply consist of the walls of the hot space(s) but where larger powers are required a greater surface area is needed in order to transfer sufficient heat. Typical implementations are internal and external fins or multiple small bore tubes. Designing Stirling engine heat exchangers is a balance between high heat transfer with low viscous pumping losses and low dead space (unswept internal volume). With engines operating at high powers and pressures, the heat exchangers on the hot side must be made of alloys that retain considerable strength at temperature and that will also not corrode or creep. Regenerator In a Stirling engine, the regenerator is an internal heat exchanger and temporary heat store placed between the hot and cold spaces such that the working fluid passes through it first in one direction then the other. Its function is to retain within the system that heat which would otherwise be exchanged with the environment... The primary effect of regeneration in a Stirling engine is to increase the thermal efficiency by 'recycling' internal heat which would otherwise pass through the engine irreversibly...
Views: 218782 Jeff Quitney
The 8"/55 Rapid Fire Gun & Turret 1955 US Navy Training Film; Major Caliber Guns & Turrets
 
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Battleships, Destroyers... US Navy Vessels playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLC3B3291260B28346 US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Covers 8-inch naval artillery used on US Navy cruisers. "These are the biggest of the Navy's rapid-fire guns, and they're almost completely automatic..." The guns are demonstrated aboard the USS Salem (CA-139) heavy cruiser. Produced by Loucks & Norling Studios Inc. US Navy Training Film MN-9321b Originally a public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/8"/55_caliber_gun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The 8"/55 caliber gun (spoken "eight-inch-fifty-five-caliber") formed the main battery of United States Navy heavy cruisers and two early aircraft carriers. United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun barrel had an internal diameter of 8 inches (203 mm), and the barrel was 55 calibers long (barrel length is 8 inch × 55 = 440 inches or 36.6 feet or 11 meters)... Mark 9 These built-up guns weighed about 30 tons including a liner, tube, jacket, and five hoops. A down-swing Welin breech block was closed by compressed air from the gas ejector system. Loading with two silk bags each containing 45 pounds (20 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 260-pound (120 kg) projectile a velocity of 2800 feet per second (850 m/s). Range was 18 miles 31,860 yd (29,130 m) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. Mark 12 These simplified built-up guns eliminated hoops to reduce weight to 17 tons. The breech mechanism was similar and loading two silk bags each containing 43 pounds (20 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 335-pound (152 kg) projectile a velocity of 2500 feet per second (760 m/s). Each gun could fire about four rounds per minute. Maximum range was 30,050 yd (27,480 m) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. Mark 14 These guns were similar to Mark 9, with the same shell weight and maximum range, with a smaller chamber and rifling twist increased from 1 in 35 to 1 in 25 in a chromium-plated bore. Mark 15 These guns were similar to Mark 12, with the same shell weight and maximum range, with the smaller chamber of the Mark 14 gun. Useful life expectancy was 715 effective full charges (EFC) per liner. Mark 16 These self-loading guns with lined monobloc construction and vertical sliding breech blocks weighed about 20 tons. Semi-fixed ammunition (projectile and powder case handled separately) with 78 pounds (35 kg) of smokeless powder gave a 335-pound (152 kg) projectile a velocity of 2500 feet per second (760 m/s). Each gun could fire about ten rounds per minute. Useful life expectancy was 780 EFC per liner. Range was 17 miles (27 kilometers) at the maximum elevation of 41 degrees. This gun was modified for the experimental Major Caliber Lightweight Gun. Coast defense use The eight twin turrets of Lexington and Saratoga were removed in early 1942 during refits at Pearl Harbor. The turrets were turned over to the United States Army Coast Artillery Corps and remounted as coastal artillery on Oahu. Four two-turret batteries were established at Salt Lake near Aliamanu Crater (Battery Salt Lake, later Battery Burgess), Wiliwilinui Ridge Military Reservation (Battery Wilridge, later Battery Kirkpatrick), Opaeula Military Reservation (Battery Opaeula, later Battery Riggs), and Brodie Camp Military Reservation (Battery Brodie, later Battery George Ricker). After the war, all of the guns and turrets were scrapped in 1948, along with almost all other US coast artillery. One of USS Louisville's main battery 8 inch 55 caliber gun turrets (Turret No. 2) damaged in a kamikaze attack on January 5, 1945 was removed and taken to the Nevada Test Site and converted into a rotating radiation detector, to collect data on nuclear tests...
Views: 80181 Jeff Quitney
Private SNAFU Censored 1944 US Army Training Cartoon, Mel Blanc, Frank Tashlin
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Private Snafu learns he should watch what he writes in letters to home. "Originally created by Theodore Geisel (Dr. Seuss) and Phil Eastman, most of the cartoons were produced by Warner Brothers Animation Studios - employing their animators, voice actors (primarily Mel Blanc) and Carl Stalling's music." Public domain film from the US National Archives slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). more Private Snafu: Booby Traps: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PbDa-NlX9A The Home Front http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGmIhhMi8cg Spies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJn_aB4FjpI Snafuperman http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Op6-V5x8XHQ Fighting Tools: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kRyUAUl2q5M Rumors: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rEdboFx1mK8 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Private_Snafu Private Snafu is the title character of a series of black-and-white American instructional cartoon shorts produced between 1943 and 1945 during World War II. The character was created by director Frank Capra, chairman of the U.S. Army Air Force First Motion Picture Unit, and most were written by Theodor "Dr. Seuss" Geisel, Philip D. Eastman, and Munro Leaf. Although the United States Army gave Walt Disney the first crack at creating the cartoons, Leon Schlesinger of the Warner Bros. animation studio underbid Disney by two-thirds and won the contract. Disney had also demanded exclusive ownership of the character, and merchandising rights. Nel (2007) shows the goal was to help enlisted men with weak literacy skills learn through animated cartoons (and also supplementary comic books). They featured simple language, racy illustrations, no profanity, and subtle moralizing. Private Snafu did everything wrong, so that his negative example taught basic lessons about secrecy, disease prevention, and proper military protocols. Private Snafu cartoons were a military secret—for the armed forces only. Surveys to ascertain the soldiers' film favorites showed that the Snafu cartoons usually rated highest or second highest. Each cartoon was produced in six weeks, compared to the six months usually taken for short cartoons of the same kind... Most of the Private Snafu shorts are educational, and although the War Department had to approve the storyboards, the Warner directors were allowed great latitude in order to keep the cartoons entertaining... The Snafu shorts are notable because they were produced during the Golden Age of Warner Bros. animation. Directors such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Bob Clampett, and Frank Tashlin worked on them, and their characteristic styles are in top form. P. D. Eastman was a writer and storyboard artist for the Snafu shorts. Voice characterizations were provided by the celebrated Mel Blanc (Private Snafu's voice was similar to Blanc's Bugs Bunny characterization, and Bugs himself actually made cameos in the Snafu episodes Gas and Three Brothers). Toward the end of the war, other studios began producing Snafu shorts as well (the Army accused Schlesinger of padding his bills), though some of these never made it to celluloid before the war ended. The Snafu films are also partly responsible for keeping the animation studios open during the war—by producing such training films, the studios were declared an essential industry. After the war, the Snafu cartoons went largely forgotten. Prints eventually wound up in the hands of collectors, and these form the basis for The Complete, Uncensored Private Snafu, a VHS and DVD collection from Bosko Video...
Views: 5275526 Jeff Quitney
PreFab Homebuilding from Industry on Parade circa 1954 NAM, Prefabricated Housing
 
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more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ National Homes Corporation, Lafayette, Indiana, makes the components of a full house every 7 minutes. From the National Association of Manufacturers "Industry on Parade" newsreel. Public domain film from the Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_building Prefabricated building is a type of building that consists of several factory-built components or units that are assembled on-site to complete the unit... History Buildings have been built in one place and reassembled in another throughout history. Possibly the first advertised prefab house was the Manning Portable Cottage. A London carpenter, Henry Manning, constructed a house that was built in components, then shipped and assembled by British emigrants. This was published at the time (advertisement, South Australian Record, 1837) and a few still stand in Australia. One such is the Friends Meeting House, Adelaide. The peak year for the importation of portable buildings to Australia was 1853, when several hundred arrived. These have been identified as coming from Liverpool, Boston and Singapore (with Chinese instructions for re-assembly). In Barbados the Chattel house was a form of prefabricated building which was developed by emancipated slaves who had limited rights to build upon land they did not own. As the buildings were moveable they were legally regarded as chattels. In 1855 during the Crimean War, after Florence Nightingale wrote a letter to The Times, Isambard Kingdom Brunel was commissioned to design a prefabricated modular hospital. In five months he designed a 1,000 patient hospital, with innovations in sanitation, ventilation and a flushing toilet. Fabricator William Eassie constructed the required 16 units in Gloucester Docks, shipped directly to the Dardanelles. Only used from March 1856 to September 1857, it reduced the death rate from 42% to 3.5%. The world's first prefabricated, pre-cast panelled apartment blocks were pioneered in Liverpool. A process was invented by city engineer John Alexander Brodie, whose inventive genius also had him inventing the football goal net. The tram stables at Walton in Liverpool followed in 1906. The idea was not extensively adopted in Britain, however was widely adopted elsewhere, particularly in Eastern Europe. Prefabricated homes were produced during the Gold Rush in the United States, when kits were produced to enable Californian prospectors to quickly construct accommodation. Homes were available in kit form by mail order in the United States in 1908. Prefabricated housing was popular during World War II due to the need for mass accommodation for military personnel. The United States used Quonset huts as military buildings, and in the United Kingdom prefabricated buildings used included Nissen huts and Bellman Hangars. 'Prefabs' were built after the war as a means of quickly and cheaply providing quality housing as a replacement for the housing destroyed during the war. The proliferation of prefabricated housing across the country was a result of the Burt Committee and the Housing (Temporary Accommodation) Act 1944. Under the Ministry of Works Emergency Factory Made housing programme, a specification was drawn up and bid on by various private construction and manufacturing companies. After approval by the MoW, companies could bid on Council led development schemes, resulting in whole estates of prefabs constructed to provide accommodation for those made homeless by the War and ongoing slum clearance. Almost 160,000 had been built in the UK by 1948 at a cost of close to £216 million. The largest single prefab estate in Britain was at Belle Vale (South Liverpool), where more than 1,100 were built after World War 2. The estate was demolished amid much controversy - the prefabs were very popular with residents - in the mid 1960s. Prefabs were aimed at families, and typically had an entrance hall, two bedrooms (parents and children), a bathroom (a room with a bath) — which was a novel innovation for many British at that time, a separate toilet, a living room and an equipped (not fitted in the modern sense) kitchen. Construction materials included steel, aluminium, timber or asbestos, depending on the type of dwelling. The aluminium Type B2 prefab was produced as four pre-assembled sections which could be transported by lorry anywhere in the country... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prefabricated_home http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufactured_housing
Views: 22255 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Water Cooled Engines: "Water Boy" 1936 Chevrolet 11min
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "A DRAMATIZATION OF THE COOLING SYSTEM OF THE AUTOMOBILE, SHOWING HOW THE WATER CIRCULATES AROUND THE CYLINDERS, COOLING THEM AND IN TURN BEING COOLED BY THE AIR DRAWN IN THROUGH THE RADIATOR." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmOGhnGXq0w Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_combustion_engine_cooling ...Cars and trucks using direct air cooling (without an intermediate liquid) were built over a long period from the very beginning and ending with a small and generally unrecognized technical change. Before World War II, water-cooled cars and trucks routinely overheated while climbing mountain roads, creating geysers of boiling cooling water. This was considered normal, and at the time, most noted mountain roads had auto repair shops to minister to overheating engines.... ... The subject of boiling engines was addressed, researched, and a solution found. Previous radiators and engine blocks were properly designed and survived durability tests, but used water pumps with a leaky graphite-lubricated "rope" seal (gland) on the pump shaft. The seal was inherited from steam engines, where water loss is accepted, since steam engines already expend large volumes of water. Because the pump seal leaked mainly when the pump was running and the engine was hot, the water loss evaporated inconspicuously, leaving at best a small rusty trace when the engine stopped and cooled, thereby not revealing significant water loss. Automobile radiators (or heat exchangers) have an outlet that feeds cooled water to the engine and the engine has an outlet that feeds heated water to the top of the radiator. Water circulation is aided by a rotary pump that has only a slight effect, having to work over such a wide range of speeds that its impeller has only a minimal effect as a pump. While running, the leaking pump seal drained cooling water to a level where the pump could no longer return water to the top of the radiator, so water circulation ceased and water in the engine boiled. However, since water loss led to overheat and further water loss from boil-over, the original water loss was hidden. After isolating the pump problem, cars and trucks built for the war effort (no civilian cars were built during that time) were equipped with carbon-seal water pumps that did not leak and caused no more geysers. Meanwhile, air cooling advanced in memory of boiling engines... even though boil-over was no longer a common problem. Air-cooled engines became popular throughout Europe. After the war, Volkswagen advertised in the USA as not boiling over, even though new water-cooled cars no longer boiled over, but these cars sold well, and without question. But as air quality awareness rose in the 1960s, and laws governing exhaust emissions were passed, unleaded gas replaced leaded gas and leaner fuel mixtures became the norm. These reductions in the cooling effects of both the lead and the formerly rich fuel mixture, led to overheating in the air-cooled engines. Valve failures and other engine damage was the result. Volkswagen responded by abandoning their (flat) horizontally opposed air-cooled engines, while Subaru took a different course and chose liquid-cooling for their (flat) engines. Today practically no air-cooled automotive engines are built, air cooling being fraught with manufacturing expense and maintenance problems. Motorcycles had an additional problem in that a water leak presented a greater threat to reliability, their engines having small cooling water volume, so they were loath to change; today most larger motorcycles are water-cooled with many relying on convection circulation with no pump...
Views: 292023 Jeff Quitney
Car Suspensions: "Spring Harmony" 1935 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "A DRAMATIZATION OF THE BALANCE BETWEEN THE FRONT & THE REAR SPRINGS, INCLUDING AN EXPLANATION OF THE VALUE OF KNEE ACTION." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8PQAWYvDKVg Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archive, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_(vehicle) Suspension is the term given to the system of springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two. Suspension systems serve a dual purpose — contributing to the vehicle's roadholding/handling and braking for good active safety and driving pleasure, and keeping vehicle occupants comfortable and reasonably well isolated from road noise, bumps, and vibrations,etc. These goals are generally at odds, so the tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in contact with the road surface as much as possible, because all the forces acting on the vehicle do so through the contact patches of the tires. The suspension also protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear. The design of front and rear suspension of a car may be different... Leaf springs have been around since the early Egyptians. Ancient military engineers used leaf springs in the form of bows to power their siege engines, with little success at first. The use of leaf springs in catapults was later refined and made to work years later. Springs were not only made of metal, a sturdy tree branch could be used as a spring, such as with a bow. Horse drawn vehicles By the early 19th century, most British horse carriages were equipped with springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. These were made of low-carbon steel and usually took the form of multiple layer leaf springs... Automobiles Automobiles were initially developed as self-propelled versions of horse drawn vehicles. However, horse drawn vehicles had been designed for relatively slow speeds and their suspension was not well suited to the higher speeds permitted by the internal combustion engine. In 1901 Mors of Paris first fitted an automobile with shock absorbers... In 1920, Leyland used torsion bars in a suspension system. In 1922, independent front suspension was pioneered on the Lancia Lambda and became more common in mass market cars from 1932... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independent_suspension Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked -- movement on one side affects the wheel on the other side. Note that "independent" refers to the motion or path of movement of the wheels/suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. The anti-roll bar ties the left and right suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together. Most modern vehicles have independent front suspension (IFS). Many vehicles also have an independent rear suspension (IRS). IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independently sprung. A fully independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels. Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones. Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle. Independent suspension requires additional engineering effort and expense in development versus a beam or live axle arrangement. A very complex IRS solution can also result in higher manufacturing costs. The key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels, the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system. Instead it is either bolted directly to the vehicle's chassis or more commonly to a subframe. The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal (U) joints, analogous to the constant-velocity (CV) joints used in front wheel drive vehicles...
Views: 411294 Jeff Quitney
Man in 457 mph Wind: "Human Tolerance to Wind Blasts" 1946 NACA  Langley Research Center
 
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NEW VERSION with improved video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LfBvXC9MQj8 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Test conducted in 1946 where a human subject was exposed to blasts of air. The test was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's 8 ft High Speed Tunnel." Silent. Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in our solar system occur on Neptune and Saturn. In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, hurricane, and typhoon. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect). Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. In human civilization, wind has inspired mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. When winds become strong, trees and man-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes... http://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/641 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel As interest in the field of high-speed aerodynamics increased in the early 1930s, Langley's existing wind tunnels proved too small and underpowered for effective high-speed aircraft testing. Understanding that a new facility would give U.S. engineers a decided advantage in the aeronautical field, Langley's director of research George W. Lewis authorized the design and construction of a larger high speed wind tunnel in 1933. Construction of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) was funded by the Public Works Administration (PWA) and completed in 1936 at a cost of $266,000... The world's first large high speed tunnel, the HST proved vital during World War II... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp#Wind-blast_experiments ...Wind-blast experiments Stapp also participated in wind-blast experiments, in which he flew in jet aircraft at high speeds to determine whether or not it was safe for a pilot to remain with his aircraft if the canopy should accidentally blow off. Stapp stayed with his aircraft at a speed of 570 mph (917 km/h), with the canopy removed, and suffered no injurious effects from the wind blasts. Among these experiments was one of the first high-altitude skydives, executed by Stapp himself. He also supervised research programs in the fields of human factors in escape from aircraft and human tolerance to abrupt acceleration and deceleration...
Views: 1492450 Jeff Quitney
Off-Base Activities: "Killjoy Was Here!" 1956 US Air Force Animated Training Film Cartoon
 
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USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html Airman Killjoy makes enemies, then Airman Archie tries to make friends, with the locals near USAF bases. "This film uses animation to instruct U.S. Air Force personnel on their responsibilities to communities surrounding their installations." US Air Force Training Film SFP-366 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_with_overseas_military_bases#United_States ...The establishment of military bases abroad enable a country to project power, e.g. to conduct expeditionary warfare, and thereby influence events abroad. Depending on their size and infrastructure, they can be used as staging areas or for logistical, communications and/or intelligence support. Many conflicts throughout modern history have resulted in overseas military bases being established in large numbers by world powers, and the existence of bases abroad has served countries having them in achieving political and military goals. The British Empire and other colonial powers established overseas military bases in many of their colonies during the First and Second World Wars, where useful, and actively sought rights to facilities where needed for strategic reasons. At one time, establishing coaling stations for naval ships was important. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union established military bases where they could within their respective spheres of influence, and actively sought influence where needed. More recently, the War on Terror has resulted in overseas military bases being established in the Middle East. Whilst the overall number of overseas military bases has fallen since 1945, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States still possess a substantial number. Smaller numbers of overseas military bases are operated by India, Italy, Japan and Turkey. The United States is the largest operator of military bases abroad, with 38 "named bases" having active duty, national guard/reserve, and/or civilian personnel as of September 30, 2014. Its largest, in terms of personnel, was Ramstein AB, in Germany, with almost 9,200 personnel... United States - Afghanistan - Camp Dwyer; Forward Operating Base Delhi; Forward Operating Base Geronimo; Firebase Fiddler's Green; PB Jaker - Australia - Pine Gap Bahrain - Naval Support Activity Bahrain; Isa Air Base Belgium - Chièvres Air Base; Kleine Brogel Air Base Brazil - United States Naval Support Detachment, São Paulo British Indian Ocean Territory - Naval Support Facility Diego Garcia - Bulgaria - Aitos Logistics Center; Bezmer Air Base; Graf Ignatievo Air Base; Novo Selo Range - Cuba - Guantanamo Bay Naval Base - Djibouti - Camp Lemonnier - Germany - US Army installations in Germany; Panzer Kaserne; Ramstein Air Base; Spangdahlem Air Base - Greece - Naval Support Activity Souda Bay[41] - Greenland - Thule Air Base - Honduras - Soto Cano Air Base - Israel - Port of Haifa (United States Sixth Fleet); Dimona Radar Facility - Italy - US Army installations in Italy; Naval Air Station Sigonella; Naval Support Activity Naples; Aviano Air Base; Darby Military Community - Japan - United States Forces Japan - Kosovo - Camp Bondsteel - Kuwait - Ali Al Salem Air Base; Camp Arifjan; Camp Buehring; Kuwait Naval Base - Netherlands - Volkel Air Base - Norway - 426th Air Base Squadron at Sola Air Station - Oman - RAFO Masirah; RAFO Thumrait - Portugal - Lajes Field - Qatar - Al Udeid Air Base - Saudi Arabia - 64th Air Expeditionary Group - Singapore - Paya Lebar Air Base - South Korea - United States Forces Korea - Spain - Morón Air Base; Naval Station Rota - Turkey - Incirlik Air Base; Izmir Air Station - United Arab Emirates - Al Dhafra Air Base; Port of Jebel Ali; Fujairah Naval Base - United Kingdom - RAF Alconbury; RAF Croughton; RAF Lakenheath; RAF Menwith Hill; RAF Mildenhall
Views: 240982 Jeff Quitney
Toxic Propellant Hazards ~ 1966 NASA KSC; Hydrazine Rocket Fuel & Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidizer
 
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Chemistry playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KyuOalV6rwHjo810Zaa6xq NASA & Space Miscellany playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_K3mK1TZNCkmdD-JMZYGew1 more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net NASA training film for workers handling hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide at Kennedy Space Center and other NASA installations. "This NASA safety film demonstrates the dangers of rocket fuels, including hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide, and instructs workers in their safe handling." Film produced by Technicolor, Inc. NASA film KSC-6. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypergolic_propellant A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other. The two propellant components usually consist of a fuel and an oxidizer. Although commonly used hypergolic propellants are difficult to handle because of their extreme toxicity and/or corrosiveness, they can be stored as liquids at room temperature and hypergolic engines are easy to ignite reliably and repeatedly. In contemporary usage, the terms "hypergol" or "hypergolic propellant" usually mean the most common such propellant combination, dinitrogen tetroxide plus hydrazine and/or its relatives monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine... History Soviet rocket engine researcher Valentin Glushko experimented with hypergolic fuel as early as 1931. It was initially used for "chemical ignition" of engines, starting kerosene/nitric acid engines with an initial charge of phosphorus dissolved in carbon disulfide. Starting in 1935, Prof. O. Lutz of the German Aeronautical Institute experimented with over 1000 self-igniting propellants. He assisted the Walter Company with the development of C-Stoff which ignited with concentrated hydrogen peroxide... Hypergolic propellants were discovered independently, for the third time, in the U.S. by GALCIT and Navy Annapolis researchers in 1940. They developed engines powered by aniline and nitric acid. Robert Goddard, Reaction Motors and Curtiss-Wright worked on aniline/nitric acid engines in the early 1940s, for small missiles and jet assisted take-off (JATO)... Advantages Hypergolic rockets are usually simple and reliable because they need no ignition system... The most common hypergolic fuels, hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, and oxidizer, nitrogen tetroxide, are all liquid at ordinary temperatures and pressures. They are therefore sometimes called storable liquid propellants. They are suitable for use in spacecraft missions lasting many years... Because hypergolic rockets do not need an ignition system, they can fire any number of times by simply opening and closing the propellant valves until the propellants are exhausted and are therefore uniquely suited for spacecraft maneuvering... Disadvantages Relative to their mass, traditional hypergolic propellants are less energetic than such cryogenic propellant combinations as liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen or liquid methane / liquid oxygen. A launch vehicle that uses hypergolic propellant must therefore carry a greater mass of fuel than one that uses these cryogenic fuels. The corrosivity, toxicity, and carcinogeneity of traditional hypergolics necessitate expensive safety precautions. Hypergolic combinations Common - Aerozine 50 + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – widely used in historical American rockets, including the Titan 2; all engines in the Apollo Lunar Module; and the Service Propulsion System in the Apollo Service Module. Aerozine 50 is a mixture of 50% UDMH and 50% straight hydrazine (N2H4). - Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) – frequently used by the Russians, such as in the Proton (rocket family) and supplied by them to France for the Ariane 1 first and second stages (replaced with UH 25); ISRO PSLV second stage. - UH 25 is a mixture of 25% hydrazine hydrate and 75% UDMH. - Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) + nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) – smaller engines and reaction control thrusters:[citation needed] Apollo Command Module reaction control system; Space Shuttle OMS and RCS; Ariane 5 EPS; Draco thrusters used by the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. The corrosiveness of nitrogen tetroxide can be reduced by adding several percent nitric oxide (NO), forming mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON)...
Views: 165204 Jeff Quitney
Saturn Propulsion Systems 1962 NASA MSFC color 14min
 
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video for embedding at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ NEW VERSION: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2UcQC23sZ-I with improved sound and video. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center film describing rocket engine principles of operation, and the development of rocket engines for the Saturn I and Saturn V launch vehicles for Project Apollo. J-2, F-1, H-1, RL-10 engines described. Project Apollo, space program, Saturn, Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn V, Saturn 1, Saturn 1B, Saturn 5, rocket, launch vehicle, H-1, J-2, F-1, RL-10, moon landing, lunar landing, apollo program, space exploration
Views: 156787 Jeff Quitney
The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima 1945 US Navy Tactical Report; Battleship Gun Performance
 
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US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 World War II playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL3E5ED4749AE3CD2C more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "The Naval Gun at Iwo Jima: Destruction of Defenses Preceding the Landing Assault" US Navy Tactical Report MN-5562 Originally a public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Iwo_Jima Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Battle of Iwo Jima (19 February -- 26 March 1945), or Operation Detachment, was a major battle in which the United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Empire of Japan. The U.S. invasion, charged with the mission of capturing the three airfields on Iwo Jima, resulted in some of the fiercest fighting in the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The Imperial Japanese Army positions on the island were heavily fortified, with a vast network of bunkers, hidden artillery, and 18 km (11 mi) of underground tunnels. The Americans were covered by extensive naval and air support, capable of delivering an enormous amount of firepower onto the Japanese positions. The battle was the first American attack on the Japanese Home Islands, and the Imperial soldiers defended their positions tenaciously. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American overall casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered 3 times that of Americans. Of the 22,000 Japanese soldiers present at the beginning of the battle, only 216 were taken prisoner. The rest were killed or missing and assumed dead. Despite heavy fighting and casualties on both sides, Japanese defeat was assured from the start. The Americans possessed an overwhelming superiority in arms and numbers; this, coupled with the impossibility of Japanese retreat or reinforcement, ensured that there was no plausible scenario in which the U.S. could have lost the battle. The battle was immortalized by Joe Rosenthal's photograph of the raising of the U.S. flag on top of the 166 m (545 ft) Mount Suribachi by five Marines and one Navy Corpsman... Starting on 15 June 1944, the U.S. began strikes against Iwo Jima that would become the longest and most intense conflict in the Pacific theater. These would be a combination of naval assaults and bombings that would go on for almost one year. Major General Harry Schmidt requested a ten day shelling of the island before the land invasion, but was given only three, which were impaired by the weather conditions. Each heavy ship was given an area to fire on which combined with all the ships covered the entire island. A ship would fire for approximately six hours before stopping for a certain amount of time... Although the island was declared secure at 18:00 on 16 March 25 days after the landings, the 5th Marine Division still faced Kuribayashi's stronghold in a gorge 640 m (700 yd) long at the northwestern end of the island... A weapon heavily used in the Pacific was the United States M2A1 flamethrower... Of the 22,060 Japanese soldiers entrenched on the island, 21,844 died either from fighting or by ritual suicide. Only 216 were captured during the battle. According to the official Navy Department Library website, "The 36-day (Iwo Jima) assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead." To put that into context, the 82-day Battle for Okinawa lasted from early April until mid-June 1945 and U.S. (5 Army and 2 Marine Corps Divisions) casualties were over 62,000 of whom over 12,000 were killed or missing ; while the Battle of the Bulge lasted 40 days (16 December 44 -- 25 January 45) with almost 90,000 U.S. casualties; 19,000 killed, 47,500 wounded, and 23,000 captured or missing. Iwo Jima was also the only U.S. Marine battle where the American casualties exceeded the Japanese, although Japanese combat deaths numbered three times as many American deaths... USS Bismarck Sea had also been lost, as the last U.S. aircraft carrier sunk in World War II... After Iwo Jima, it was estimated there were no more than 300 Japanese left alive in the island's warren of caves and tunnels. In fact, there were close to 3,000...
Views: 533737 Jeff Quitney
Jeep History: "Autobiography of a Jeep" 1943 United Films 10min
 
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more at http://cars.quickfound.net/ "Describes the designing of the Jeep to meet military needs of being compact, light weight and maneuverable over rough terrain." NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTKe2uyWjI4 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeep Jeep is an automobile marque of Chrysler (itself a subsidiary of Fiat). The first Willys Jeeps were produced in 1941 with the first civilian models in 1945, making it the oldest off-road vehicle and sport utility vehicle (SUV) brand. It inspired a number of other light utility vehicles, such as the Land Rover which is the second oldest 4-wheel-drive brand. The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light 4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies during World War II, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created in other nations. Bantam Reconnaissance Car When it became obvious that the United States was eventually going to become involved in the war raging in Europe, the U.S. Army contacted 135 companies asking for working prototypes of a four-wheel-drive reconnaissance car. Only two companies responded to the request, The American Bantam Car Company and Willys-Overland. The Army had set what seemed like an impossible deadline of 49 days to supply a working prototype. Willys asked for more time but were refused. The bankrupt American Bantam Car Company had no engineering staff left on the payroll and brought in Karl Probst, a talented freelance designer from Detroit. After turning down an initial request from Bantam, Probst accepted the job after being asked again by the Army, and initially working without salary, went to work July 17, 1940. Probst completely laid out plans for the Bantam prototype, known as the BRC or Bantam Reconnaissane Car, in two days, and the next day estimated the total cost of the vehicle. On July 22, Bantam's bid was submitted, complete with blueprints. Much of the vehicle had to be assembled from existing off-the-shelf automotive parts, and the custom four-wheel drivetrain components were supplied by Spicer. The hand-built prototype was completed in Butler, Pennsylvania,[9] and driven to Camp Holabird, Maryland, for testing by the Army on 21 September 1940. The vehicle met the Army's criteria, but its engine did not meet the Army's torque requirements. Ford Pygmy and Willys MB The Army felt that the Bantam company was too small to supply the number of vehicles it needed, so it supplied the Bantam design to Willys and Ford who were encouraged to make their own changes and modifications. The resulting Ford "Pygmy" and Willys "Quad" prototypes looked very similar to the Bantam BRC (Bantam Reconnaissance Car) prototype and Spicer supplied very similar four-wheel drivetrain components to all three manufacturers. Fifteen hundred of each of the three models were built and extensively field-tested. Willys-Overland's chief engineer Delmar "Barney" Roos made design changes to meet a revised weight specification (a maximum of 1,275 lb (578 kg) including oil and water). He was thus able to use the powerful but comparatively heavy Willys "Go Devil" engine, and win the initial production contract. The Willys version of the car would become the standardized jeep design, designated the model MB and was built at their plant in Toledo, Ohio. The familiar pressed metal Jeep grille was actually a Ford design feature and incorporated into the final design by the Army. Since the War Department required a large number of vehicles to be manufactured in a relatively short time, Willys-Overland granted the United States Government a non-exclusive license to allow another company to manufacture vehicles using Willys' specifications. The Army chose Ford as the second supplier, but building Jeeps to the Willys' design. Willys supplied Ford with a complete set of plans and specifications. American Bantam, the creators of the first Jeep, spent the rest of the war building heavy-duty trailers for the Army....
Views: 366601 Jeff Quitney
Car Transmissions & Synchromesh: "Spinning Levers" 1936 Chevrolet Auto Mechanics 10min
 
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Auto Mechanics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ '"The transmission in the modern motorcar -- the mechanism that makes it possible to have three forward speeds and a reverse -- is a series of levers, levers that spin." VS cartoon of Archimedes trying to move earth with a lever extending from the moon or another planet in outer space; CU cartoon of Archimedes says "Give me a lever long enough and I can move the world." CU disembodied hands using antique can opener to open a can of peaches; CU can open cutting through top of can. Two boys playing on a seesaw. CU pitch bar tool inserted between train wheel and track; man cranks large lever to move freight car along track; CU disembodied arm pumps lever lifting antique car off ground. VS man demonstrates basics of the lever using triangular piece as fulcrum and a long metal piece, man attaches 10 lbs. weight to one end of the bar and a 5 lbs. weight to the other end; man hangs various weights from both ends of the bar balancing the two by moving the fulcrum to various points along the bar; man demonstrates how a gear is constructed through numerous interlocking levers. VS stop-motion animation of two wheels with paddles added one by one turning wheels into paddle wheels and then into interlocking gears; cuts to more sophisticated gear; cuts to metal gears; VS CU different types of machine gears, worm gears, bevel gears, lopsided gears. Disembodied arm pieces together piece by piece a basic motor with various gear components; superimposed text appears labeling various parts; superimposed arrows identify different gears; motor begins to turn; cuts to CU car drives across frame; cuts back to crude motor; camera pans to Revolutions Per Minute dial which reads 100 rpm, camera pans to another RPM instrument dial which reads 30 rpm; CU crude model of gears in motor, superimposed arrows show flow of energy through the system. CU RPM instrument dial reads 60 rpm; CU churning gears of motor, superimposed arrows she flow of energy through gear system; VS man demonstrates on gears how shifting to various gears works. CU arrow point to 90 rpm on deal labeled Revolutions Per Minute; VS man demonstrating different gears. Great shot 4 lanes of cars stopped at stoplight on city street; Travel Bureau sign in background. CU disembodied hand in white glove shifts clutch of car; CU motor shifting gears; CU tire with Chevrolet hubcap begins to move; 1920s and 1930s cars stopped at traffic light begin to move; CU inside car woman shifts gears; car driving down tree-lined highway in possibly New York, what appears to be the Statue of Liberty is seen off in the distance. Woman enters drivers seat of Chevrolet, man waves start flag; car drives off down street; CU disembodied woman's foot on gas pedal beside break and clutch pedal with Chevrolet logos; CU speedometer shows car hitting 60 mph; CU woman downshifts; CU speedometer goes down to 35 mph; car stops at bottom of hill. CU sign along rugged road 'Steep Hill Use Second Gear"' Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_(mechanics) A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power... Manual Manual transmission come in two basic types: - a simple but rugged sliding-mesh or unsynchronized / non-synchronous system, where straight-cut spur gear sets are spinning freely, and must be synchronized by the operator matching engine revs to road speed, to avoid noisy and damaging "gear clash", - and the now common constant-mesh gearboxes which can include non-synchronised, or synchronized / synchromesh systems, where typically diagonal cut helical (or sometimes either straight-cut, or double-helical) gear sets are constantly "meshed" together, and a dog clutch is used for changing gears. On synchromesh boxes, friction cones or "synchro-rings" are used in addition to the dog clutch to closely match the rotational speeds of the two sides of the (declutched) transmission before making a full mechanical engagement...
Views: 10418 Jeff Quitney
Physics: Crystals 1958 Alan Holden - Bell Laboratories - PSSC Physical Science Study Committee
 
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Support this channel: https://www.patreon.com/jeffquitney Physical Science Study Committee Films (PSSC) playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_KuXqv0QzMoNQYgR_nBxETx Physics & Physical Sciences playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_JKIMNk88rKCkhpK73_qmHY "Explains how crystals are formed and why they are shaped as they are. Considers their actual growth under a microscope, how they may be grown, and the relation of these phenomena to the concept of atoms. From the PSSC Physics series. Blue Ribbon winner, American Film Festival." Your instructor is Alan Holden of Bell Laboratories. Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crystal A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions. In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification. The word crystal is derived from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”, from κρύος (kruos), "icy cold, frost". Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever. Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics... The scientific definition of a "crystal" is based on the microscopic arrangement of atoms inside it, called the crystal structure. A crystal is a solid where the atoms form a periodic arrangement. (Quasicrystals are an exception, see below.) Not all solids are crystals. For example, when liquid water starts freezing, the phase change begins with small ice crystals that grow until they fuse, forming a polycrystalline structure. In the final block of ice, each of the small crystals (called "crystallites" or "grains") is a true crystal with a periodic arrangement of atoms, but the whole polycrystal does not have a periodic arrangement of atoms, because the periodic pattern is broken at the grain boundaries. Most macroscopic inorganic solids are polycrystalline, including almost all metals, ceramics, ice, rocks, etc. Solids that are neither crystalline nor polycrystalline, such as glass, are called amorphous solids, also called glassy, vitreous, or noncrystalline. These have no periodic order, even microscopically. There are distinct differences between crystalline solids and amorphous solids: most notably, the process of forming a glass does not release the latent heat of fusion, but forming a crystal does. A crystal structure (an arrangement of atoms in a crystal) is characterized by its unit cell, a small imaginary box containing one or more atoms in a specific spatial arrangement. The unit cells are stacked in three-dimensional space to form the crystal. The symmetry of a crystal is constrained by the requirement that the unit cells stack perfectly with no gaps. There are 219 possible crystal symmetries, called crystallographic space groups. These are grouped into 7 crystal systems, such as cubic crystal system (where the crystals may form cubes or rectangular boxes, such as halite shown at right) or hexagonal crystal system (where the crystals may form hexagons, such as ordinary water ice)...
Views: 362250 Jeff Quitney
Principles of Refrigeration 1963 US Air Force; How Refrigerators Work
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "SHOWS APPLICATION OF BASIC PHYSICS OF HEAT TRANSFER IN REFRIGERATION UNITS. EXPLAINS TEMPERATURE CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT PASSING THROUGH THE EXPANSION VALVE, COMPRESSOR, CONDENSER AND EVAPORATOR AS IT CARRIES HEAT TO THE OUTSIDE AIR." US Air Force training film TF-5536a Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, air conditioning, and heat pumps... First refrigeration systems The first known method of artificial refrigeration was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in Scotland in 1756. Cullen used a pump to create a partial vacuum over a container of diethyl ether, which then boiled, absorbing heat from the surrounding air.[4] The experiment even created a small amount of ice, but had no practical application at that time. In 1758, Benjamin Franklin and John Hadley, professor of chemistry at Cambridge University, conducted an experiment to explore the principle of evaporation as a means to rapidly cool an object. Franklin and Hadley confirmed evaporation of highly volatile liquids, such as alcohol and ether, could be used to drive down the temperature of an object past the freezing point of water. They conducted their experiment with the bulb of a mercury thermometer as their object and with a bellows used to "quicken" the evaporation; they lowered the temperature of the thermometer bulb down to 7 °F (−14 °C), while the ambient temperature was 65 °F (18 °C). Franklin noted that soon after they passed the freezing point of water (32 °F), a thin film of ice formed on the surface of the thermometer's bulb and that the ice mass was about a quarter inch thick when they stopped the experiment upon reaching 7 °F (−14 °C). Franklin concluded, "From this experiment, one may see the possibility of freezing a man to death on a warm summer's day". In 1805, American inventor Oliver Evans designed, but never built, a refrigeration system based on the vapor-compression refrigeration cycle rather than chemical solutions or volatile liquids such as ethyl ether. In 1820, the British scientist Michael Faraday liquefied ammonia and other gases by using high pressures and low temperatures. An American living in Great Britain, Jacob Perkins, obtained the first patent for a vapor-compression refrigeration system in 1834. Perkins built a prototype system and it actually worked, although it did not succeed commercially. In 1842, an American physician, John Gorrie, designed the first system to refrigerate water to produce ice. He also conceived the idea of using his refrigeration system to cool the air for comfort in homes and hospitals (i.e., air conditioning). His system compressed air, then partly cooled the hot compressed air with water before allowing it to expand while doing part of the work needed to drive the air compressor. That isentropic expansion cooled the air to a temperature low enough to freeze water and produce ice, or to flow "through a pipe for effecting refrigeration otherwise" as stated in his patent granted by the U.S. Patent Office in 1851... Alexander Twining began experimenting with vapor-compression refrigeration in 1848, and obtained patents in 1850 and 1853. He is credited with having initiated commercial refrigeration in the United States by 1856... Domestic mechanical refrigerators became available in the United States around 1911... Cyclic refrigeration This consists of a refrigeration cycle, where heat is removed from a low-temperature space or source and rejected to a high-temperature sink with the help of external work, and its inverse, the thermodynamic power cycle. In the power cycle, heat is supplied from a high-temperature source to the engine, part of the heat being used to produce work and the rest being rejected to a low-temperature sink. This satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. A refrigeration cycle describes the changes that take place in the refrigerant as it alternately absorbs and rejects heat as it circulates through a refrigerator...
Views: 108962 Jeff Quitney
Electronics: Vacuum Tubes (Valves): Triode & Multipurpose Tubes ~ 1943 US Army Training Film TF1-471
 
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OOPS: This video outputs sound on the left speaker only. Fixed version with sound from both speakers here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igGu-I7Cg6A Electronics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA9B0175C3E15B47 US Army Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0C7C6CCF1C0DEBB3 more at http://electronics.quickfound.net/ "Explains basic functions of electronic tubes and shows how each type of tube is used in military applications." US Army Training Film TF 1-471 Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vacuum_tube In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube (in North America), or thermionic valve (elsewhere, especially in Britain), reduced to simply "tube" or "valve" in everyday parlance, is a device that relies on the flow of electric current through a vacuum. Vacuum tubes may be used for rectification, amplification, switching, or similar processing or creation of electrical signals. Vacuum tubes rely on thermionic emission of electrons from a hot filament or hot cathode, that then travel through a vacuum toward the anode (commonly called the plate), which is held at a positive voltage relative to the cathode. Additional electrodes interposed between the cathode and anode can alter the current, giving the tube the ability to amplify and switch. Vacuum tubes were critical to the development of electronic technology... In most applications, vacuum tubes have been replaced by solid-state devices such as transistors and other semiconductor devices... However, tubes still find particular uses where solid-state devices have not been developed or are not practical, or where the tube device is regarded as having superior performance over the solid-state equivalent, as can be the case with some devices used in professional audio. Tubes are still produced for such applications and to replace those used in existing equipment such as high-power radio transmitters... Classification Vacuum tubes with two active elements ("diodes") are used for rectification. Ones with 3 or more elements ("triodes", "tetrodes", etc.) are used for amplification, functions which rely on amplification such as oscillators, and switching... The 19th century saw increasing research with evacuated tubes, such as the Geissler and Crookes tubes. Famous scientists who experimented with such tubes included Thomas Edison, Eugen Goldstein, Nikola Tesla, and Johann Wilhelm Hittorf... Although thermionic emission was originally reported in 1873 by Frederick Guthrie, it was Thomas Edison's 1884 investigation that spurred future research, the phenomenon thus becoming known as the "Edison Effect." Edison patented what he found, but he did not understand the underlying physics, nor did he have an inkling of the potential value of the discovery. It wasn't until the early 20th century that the rectifying property of such a device was utilized, most notably by John Ambrose Fleming who used the diode tube to detect (demodulate) radio signals. Lee De Forest's 1906 "audion" was also developed as a radio detector, and soon led to the development of the triode tube. This was essentially the first electronic amplifier, leading to great improvements in telephony... The electronics revolution of the 20th century arguably began with the invention of the triode vacuum tube... ...it was Lee De Forest who in 1907 is credited with inventing the triode tube while continuing experiments to improve his original Audion tube, a crude forerunner of the triode. By placing an additional electrode in between the filament (cathode) and plate (anode), he discovered the ability of the resulting device to amplify signals of all frequencies. As the voltage applied to the so-called control grid (or simply "grid") was lowered from the cathode's voltage to somewhat more negative voltages, the amount of current flowing from the filament to the plate would be reduced. The negative electrostatic field created by the grid in the vicinity of the cathode would inhibit thermionic emission and reduce the current to the plate. Thus a few volts difference at the grid would make a large change in the plate current and could lead to a much larger voltage change at the plate, resulting in voltage and power amplification. In 1907, De Forest filed for a patent for such a three-electrode version of his original Audion tube for use as an electronic amplifier in radio communications. This eventually became known as the triode....
Views: 78042 Jeff Quitney
84 mph Truck Crash into 690 Ton Concrete Block: Nuclear Waste Cask Crash Tests 1978 DOE Sandia
 
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Nuclear & Radioactive playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4CD7F0970A5F16AB more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net Radioactive waste transportation safety tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1977 and 1978. A truck carrying a 22 ton nuclear waste flask (aka cask) crashes head on into a 690 ton concrete block at 60 miles per hour. After cleanup, the same cask is impacted into the block at 84 miles per hour. 3rd test: a locomotive crashes into a truck holding a 25 ton radioactive waste cask at 81 miles per hour. Final test: a 74 ton nuclear waste cask aboard a cask rail car impacts the concrete block at 81 mph, then is burned by a pool of jet fuel for 90 minutes, during which temps exceeded 1400 degrees F. What is not mentioned is the possibility of a nuclear waste cask truck impacting another truck traveling at 60+ mph in the opposite direction making the combined velocity 120+ mph. Public domain film slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_flask A nuclear flask is a shipping container that is used to transport active nuclear materials between nuclear power station and spent fuel reprocessing facilities. Each shipping container is designed to maintain its integrity under normal transportation conditions and during hypothetical accident conditions. They must protect their contents against damage from the outside world, such as impact or fire. They must also contain their contents from leakage, both for physical leakage and for radiological shielding. Spent nuclear fuel shipping casks are used to transport spent nuclear fuel used in nuclear power plants and research reactors to disposal sites such as the nuclear reprocessing center at COGEMA La Hague site... In the United States, the acceptability of the design of each cask is judged against Title 10, Part 71, of the Code of Federal Regulations (other nations' shipping casks, possibly excluding Russia's, are designed and tested to similar standards (International Atomic Energy Agency "Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material" No. TS-R-1)). The designs must demonstrate (possibly by computer modelling) protection against radiological release to the environment under all four of the following hypothetical accident conditions, designed to encompass 99% of all accidents: - A 9-meter (30 ft) free fall onto an unyielding surface - A puncture test allowing the container to free-fall 1 meter (about 39 inches) onto a steel rod 15 centimeters (about 6 inches) in diameter - A 30-minute, all-engulfing fire at 800 degrees Celsius (1475 degrees Fahrenheit) - An 8-hour immersion under 0.9 meter (3 ft) of water. - Further, an undamaged package must be subjected to a one-hour immersion under 200 meters (655 ft) of water. In addition, between 1975 and 1977 Sandia National Laboratories conducted full-scale crash tests on spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. Although the casks were damaged, none would have leaked... Since 1965, approximately 3,000 shipments of spent nuclear fuel have been transported safely over the U.S.'s highways, waterways, and railroads. Baltimore train tunnel fire On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland, United States. The fire burned for 3 days, with temperatures as high as 1000 °C (1800 °F). Since the casks are designed for a 30-minute fire at 800 °C (1475 °F), several reports have been made regarding the inability of the casks to survive... State of Nevada The State of Nevada, USA, released a report entitled, "Implications of the Baltimore Rail Tunnel Fire for Full-Scale Testing of Shipping Casks" on February 25, 2003. In the report, they said a hypothetical spent nuclear fuel accident based on the Baltimore fire: - "Concluded steel-lead-steel cask would have failed after 6.3 hours; monolithic steel cask would have failed after 11-12.5 hours." - "Contaminated Area: 32 square miles (82 km2)" - "Latent cancer fatalities: 4,000-28,000 over 50 years (200-1,400 during first year)" - "Cleanup cost: $13.7 Billion (2001 Dollars)"...
Views: 448567 Jeff Quitney
Supermarket Checkers: "The Front Line" 1965 Reader's Digest; Grocery Store Cashier Training
 
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Food & Beverage playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL12ED9F0F94A97DA0 more at http://food.quickfound.net "How to be an effective supermarket checker." Features former "International Checker of the Year" champions. Presented by Reader's Digest in cooperation with Super Market Institute. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermarket A supermarket, a large form of the traditional grocery store, is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles. It is larger and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market. The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce, dairy, and baked goods aisles, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as kitchenware, household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies... In the early days of retailing, all products generally were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant's counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Also, most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer. This also offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as "a social occasion" and would often "pause for conversations with the staff or other customers." These practices were by nature very labor-intensive and therefore also quite expensive. The shopping process was slow, as the number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store. Shopping for groceries also often involved trips to multiple specialty shops, such as a greengrocer, butcher, bakery, fishmonger and dry goods store, in addition to a general store, while milk was delivered by a milkman. The concept of an inexpensive food market relying on large economies of scale was developed by Vincent Astor. He founded the Astor Market in 1915, investing $750,000 ($18 million in 2015 currency) of his fortune into a 165' by 125' corner of 95th and Broadway, Manhattan, creating, in effect, an open air mini-mall that sold meat, fruit, produce and flowers. The expectation was that customers would come from great distances ("miles around"), but in the end even attracting people from ten blocks away was difficult, and the market folded in 1917. The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores. His first store opened in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas he incorporated into his stores. The stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, which was established in 1859, was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, and became common in North American cities in the 1920s. The general trend in since then has been to stock shelves at night so that customers, the following day, can obtain their own goods and bring them to the front of the store to pay for them. Although there is a higher risk of shoplifting, the costs of appropriate security measures ideally will be outweighed by reduced labor costs. Early self-service grocery stores did not sell fresh meats or produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s. Historically, there was debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralphs of California having strong claims... It has been determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on 4 August 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City. The store, King Kullen, operated under the slogan "Pile it high. Sell it low." At the time of Cullen's death in 1936, there were seventeen King Kullen stores in operation. Although Saunders had brought the world self-service, uniform stores and nationwide marketing, Cullen built on this idea by adding separate food departments, selling large volumes of food at discount prices and adding a parking lot...
Views: 81399 Jeff Quitney
Soybeans for Farm and Industry ~ 1940 International Harvester; Soya Bean Cultivation & Uses
 
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Agriculture: Farming, Ranching playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL897E774CDB19F283 more at http://quickfound.net/links/agriculture_news_and_links.html Unfortunately this film is incomplete, but the nine minutes plus here are quite good. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soybean The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses. The plant is classed as an oilseed rather than a pulse by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged meals; soy vegetable oil is another product of processing the soybean crop. For example, soybean products such as textured vegetable protein (TVP) are ingredients in many meat and dairy analogues. Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land. Traditional nonfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, and from the latter tofu and tofu skin. Fermented foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, natto, and tempeh, among others. The oil is used in many industrial applications. The main producers of soy are the United States (35%), Brazil (27%), Argentina (19%), China (6%) and India (4%). Today, the United States is also the world's largest consumer of soybeans, with an average annual consumption of 45,313 TMT. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and isoflavones... Soy varies in growth and habit. The height of the plant varies from below 20 cm (7.9 in) up to 2 metres (6.6 ft)... Together, soybean oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. Most soy protein is a relatively heat-stable storage protein. This heat stability enables soy food products requiring high temperature cooking, such as tofu, soy milk and textured vegetable protein (soy flour) to be made... For human consumption, soybeans must be cooked with "wet" heat to destroy the trypsin inhibitors (serine protease inhibitors). Raw soybeans, including the immature green form, are toxic to humans, swine, chickens, and in fact, all monogastric animals. Soybeans are considered by many agencies to be a source of complete protein. A complete protein is one that contains significant amounts of all the essential amino acids that must be provided to the human body because of the body's inability to synthesize them. For this reason, soy is a good source of protein, amongst many others, for vegetarians and vegans or for people who want to reduce the amount of meat they eat... Soy protein is essentially identical to that of other legume seeds. Moreover, soybeans can produce at least twice as much protein per acre than any other major vegetable or grain crop besides hemp, five to 10 times more protein per acre than land set aside for grazing animals to make milk, and up to 15 times more protein per acre than land set aside for meat production... Cultivation is successful in climates with hot summers, with optimum growing conditions in mean temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F); temperatures of below 20 °C and over 40 °C (68 °F, 104 °F) retard growth significantly. They can grow in a wide range of soils, with optimum growth in moist alluvial soils with a good organic content. Soybeans, like most legumes, perform nitrogen fixation by establishing a symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum (syn. Rhizobium japonicum; Jordan 1982). For best results, though, an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed before planting. Modern crop cultivars generally reach a height of around 1 m (3.3 ft), and take 80--120 days from sowing to harvesting. The U.S., Brazil, Argentina, China and India are the world's largest soybean producers and represent more than 90% of global soybean production. The U.S. produced 75 million tons of soybeans in 2000, of which more than one-third was exported. In the 2010--2011 production year, this figure is expected to be over 90 million tons. Other leading producers are Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, China, and India...
Views: 99158 Jeff Quitney
Shotgun or Sidearm? ~ 1976 Sid Davis Police Training Film; When Should Cops Use Shotguns?
 
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FBI & Police Training playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1265E0E6B45AC07D Firearms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 more at http://quickfound.net "Most cops get a fair amount of practice with their sidearms. But they don't fire a shotgun very often... and just as important, they don't know when to take the shotgun out of the police car..." Shot in Pasadena, California, with the cooperation of the Pasadena Police Department. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Riot_shotgun Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A riot shotgun is a shotgun designed or modified for use as a primarily defensive weapon, by the use of a short barrel and a larger magazine capacity than shotguns marketed for hunting. The riot shotgun is used by military personnel for guard duty and was at one time used for riot control, and is commonly used as a door breaching and patrol weapon by law enforcement personnel, as well as a home defense weapon by private citizens. Guns of this type are often labeled as breaching shotguns, tactical shotguns or special-purpose shotguns to denote the larger scope of their use; however these are largely marketing terms... Characteristics The primary characteristic of a riot shotgun is a "short" barrel (generally 14 to 20" long; 18" is the shortest length available in the U.S. that is not subject to additional federal BATFE regulation, though such restrictions are rarely a problem for police departments and thus shorter-barrel shotguns are not uncommon among police) which makes the shotgun more compact and easier to handle, easier to stow inside a police vehicle, and more suitable for quick aiming at (close) stationary targets. Generally they have an open (cylinder-bore) choke, to permit the shot to spread quickly and to allow use with other types of projectiles, and they may be equipped with bead, rifle, or ghost-ring sights. Riot guns are most often pump-action due to this design's lower cost and higher reliability, although in recent years a number of semi-automatic shotguns designed primarily for defensive use have become available and are used by military, law enforcement and civilians alike. Most riot guns are chambered in 12-gauge and can handle either 2.75" "standard-length" or 3" "magnum" cartridges. Most non-shotshell loads, such as less lethal ammunition like bean bags, are made only in 12-gauge. However, 20-gauge and .410 shotguns in riot gun configuration are available. Smaller bores are popular for home defense, as the reduced power and recoil make them more suitable for less experienced shooters who are recoil-sensitive. While most hunting shotguns hold between 2 and 5 shells (often 3 shells, to comply with U.S. regulations for migratory bird hunting), riot shotguns can have a magazine tube as long as the barrel, allowing for 6 to 10 shells to be loaded depending on the model, barrel length, and type of shells loaded...
Views: 177208 Jeff Quitney
Gear Shift "Vacuum Control" 1938 Chevrolet Division, General Motors
 
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more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "AN EXPLANATION OF THE PRINCIPLE OF THE NEW VACUUM GEARSHIFT, AND HOW IT CONTRIBUTES TO COMFORT, EASE OF DRIVING, & SAFETY." Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). 1938 Chevrolet Specifications for Passenger Cars: http://chevy.oldcarmanualproject.com/chevyresto/38specs00.htm http://auto.howstuffworks.com/1938-chevrolet-master-and-master-deluxe.htm The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe were saddled with the unimaginative advertising slogan "The Car that is Complete." It was a year of refinement, for only minor modifications differentiated the 1938 Chevys from their 1937 counterparts. The 1938 Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe did get a smart new grille designed by Franklin Q. Hershey, a recent arrival from Pontiac. It featured horizontal, rather than vertical bars. Otherwise, styling was unchanged. The engine was fitted with heavier valve springs, and the rear tread was widened by two inches, presumably for greater stability. Once again, the Chevrolet Master and Master DeLuxe offered 12 models, six in the Master series and six in the Master DeLuxe. Coach and sedan sales very nearly fell off the charts, as buyers defected to the Town Sedan and Sport Sedan models, both offering the convenience of built-in trunks for just a few extra dollars. Prices were raised by as much as 41/2 percent, which may have been a tactical error; the nation's economy was in the grip of a severe recession and sales plummeted by about 43.5 percent. Even so, Chevrolet was able to increase its lead over Ford...
Views: 176601 Jeff Quitney
Aerobatics & Spin Recovery: "The Inverted Spin" 1943 US Navy Pilot Training Film
 
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more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html The Inverted Spin - Intermediate Acrobatics Part VII. "Points out the difference between an accidental spin and an inverted spin; and demonstrates the procedure of executing an inverted spin." US Navy flight training film MN-1325f. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_(aerodynamics) A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, rotating, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point. In a normal spin, the wing on the inside of the turn is stalled while the outside wing remains flying; it is possible for both wings to be stalled but the angle of attack of each wing, and consequently its lift and drag, will be different. Either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate (yaw) toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing and a shallow descent. Recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash. A spin differs from a spiral dive in which neither wing is stalled and which is characterized by a low angle of attack and high airspeed. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled. In a spiral dive, the aircraft will respond conventionally to the pilot's inputs to the flight controls and recovery from a spiral dive requires a different set of actions from those required to recover from a spin. In the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a "tailspin"... Entry and recovery Some aircraft cannot be recovered from a spin using only their own flight control surfaces and must not be allowed to enter a spin under any circumstances... Spin-entry procedures vary with the type and model of aircraft being flown but there are general procedures applicable to most aircraft. These include reducing power to idle and simultaneously raising the nose in order to induce an upright stall. Then, as the aircraft approaches stall, apply full rudder in the desired spin direction while holding full back-elevator pressure for an upright spin. Sometimes a roll input is applied in the direction opposite of the rudder (i.e., a cross-control). If the aircraft manufacturer provides a specific procedure for spin recovery, that procedure must be used. Otherwise, to recover from an upright spin, the following generic procedure may be used: Power is first reduced to idle and the ailerons are neutralized. Then, full opposite rudder (that is, against the yaw) is added and held to counteract the spin rotation, and the elevator control is moved briskly forward to reduce the angle of attack below the critical angle. Depending on the airplane and the type of spin, the elevator action could be a minimal input before rotation ceases, or in other cases the elevator control may have to be moved to its full forward position to effect recovery from the upright spin. Once the rotation has stopped, the rudder must be neutralized and the airplane returned to level flight. This procedure is sometimes called PARE, for Power idle, Ailerons neutral, Rudder opposite the spin and held, and Elevator through neutral. The mnemonic "PARE" simply reinforces the tried-and-true NASA standard spin recovery actions—the very same actions first prescribed by NACA in 1936, verified by NASA during an intensive, decade-long spin test program overlapping the 1970s and '80s, and repeatedly recommended by the FAA and implemented by the majority of test pilots during certification spin-testing of light airplanes. Inverted spinning and erect or upright spinning are dynamically very similar and require essentially the same recovery process but use opposite elevator control. In an upright spin, both roll and yaw are in the same direction but that an inverted spin is composed of opposing roll and yaw. It is crucial that the yaw be countered to effect recovery. The visual field in a typical spin (as opposed to a flat spin) is heavily dominated by the perception of roll over yaw, which can lead to an incorrect and dangerous conclusion that a given inverted spin is actually an erect spin in the reverse yaw direction (leading to a recovery attempt in which pro-spin rudder is mistakenly applied and then further exacerbated by holding the incorrect elevator input)...
Views: 29940 Jeff Quitney
Ballistics:  Fundamentals of Ballistics 1948 US Army Training Film
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICS INVOLVED IN DESIGN AND FUNCTIONING OF WEAPONS AND AMMUNITION, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THEIR ARTILLERY APPLICATION." US Army training film TF9-1512 US Army Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL0C7C6CCF1C0DEBB3 Small Arms playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL22A5611941174745 Reupload of a previously uploaded film, in one piece instead of multiple parts, and with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ballistics Ballistics (gr. βάλλειν ('ba'llein'), "throw") is the science of mechanics that deals with the flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body which is free to move, behave, and be modified in appearance, contour, or texture by ambient conditions, substances, or forces, as by the pressure of gases in a gun or propulsive nozzle, by rifling in a barrel, by gravity, by temperature, or by air particles. A ballistic missile is a missile only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight, whose course is subsequently governed by the laws of classical mechanics. Modern inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), contain a maneuverable orbiting bus that positions and releases ballistic warheads in space using celestial navigation. Gun ballistics Gun ballistics is the work of projectiles from the time of shooting to the time of impact with the target. Gun ballistics is often broken down into the following four categories, which contain detailed information on each category: Internal ballistics (sometimes called interior ballistics): the study of the processes originally accelerating the projectile, for example the passage of a bullet through the barrel of a rifle. Transition ballistics (sometimes called intermediate ballistics): the study of the projectile's behavior when it leaves the barrel and the pressure behind the projectile is equalized. External ballistics (sometimes called exterior ballistics): the study of the passage of the projectile through a medium, most commonly earth's atmosphere. Terminal ballistics: the study of the interaction of a projectile with its target, whether that be flesh (for a hunting bullet), steel (for an anti-tank round), or even furnace slag (for an industrial slag disruptor). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internal_ballistics Internal ballistics, a subfield of ballistics, is the study of a projectile's motion from the time its propellant's igniter is initiated until it exits the gun barrel. The study of internal ballistics is important to designers and users of firearms of all types, from small-bore Olympic rifles and pistols, to high-tech artillery. Hatcher breaks the duration of interior ballistics into 3 parts: - Lock time, the time from sear release until the primer is struck - Ignition time, the time from when the primer is struck until the projectile starts to move - Barrel time, the time from when the projectile starts to move until exits the barrel. These times have significance for accuracy. If the weapon is moving, then a shorter lock time minimizes the effect of that motion. The consistency of the ignition and barrel times affect and relate to the muzzle velocity. There are many processes that are significant. The source of energy is the burning propellant. It generates hot gases that raise the chamber pressure. That pressure pushes on the base of the projectile, and causes the projectile to accelerate. The chamber pressure depends on many factors. The amount of propellant that has burned, the temperature of the gases, and the volume of the chamber. The burn rate of the propellant depends not only chemical makeup, but also the shape of the propellant grains. The temperature depends not only on the energy released, but also the heat lost to the sides of the barrel and chamber. The volume of the chamber is continuously changing: as the propellant burns, there is more volume for the gas to occupy. As the projectile travels down the barrel, the volume behind the projectile also increases...
Views: 151117 Jeff Quitney
Fallout: When And How To Protect Yourself 1959 U S Office Of Civil Defense
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Illustrates the cause and effects of radioactive fallout. Describes preparations which should be made to safeguard lives and protect food and water supplies. Animated." Public domain film, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallout_shelter A fallout shelter is an enclosed space specially designed to protect occupants from radioactive debris or fallout resulting from a nuclear explosion. Many such shelters were constructed as civil defense measures during the Cold War. During a nuclear explosion, matter vaporized in the resulting fireball is exposed to neutrons from the explosion, absorbs them, and becomes radioactive. When this material condenses in the rain, it forms dust and light sandy materials that resembles ground pumice. The fallout emits alpha and beta particles, as well as gamma rays. Much of this highly radioactive material then falls to earth, subjecting anything within the line of sight to radiation, a significant hazard. A fallout shelter is designed to allow its occupants to minimize exposure to harmful fallout until radioactivity has decayed to a safer level. Although many shelters still exist, many even being used as museums, virtually all fallout shelters have been decommissioned since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991... Shielding A basic fallout shelter consists of shields that reduce gamma ray exposure by a factor of 1000. The required shielding can be accomplished with 10 times the amount of any quantity of material capable of cutting gamma ray effects in half. Shields that reduce gamma ray intensity by 50% (1/2) include 1 cm (0.4 inch) of lead, 6 cm (2.4 inches) of concrete, 9 cm (3.6 inches) of packed dirt or 150 m (500 ft) of air. When multiple thicknesses are built, the shielding multiplies. Thus, a practical fallout shield is ten halving-thicknesses of packed dirt, reducing gamma rays by 1024 times. Usually, an expedient purpose-built fallout shelter is a trench; with a strong roof buried by c. 1 m (3 ft) of dirt. The two ends of the trench have ramps or entrances at right angles to the trench, so that gamma rays cannot enter (they can travel only in straight lines). To make the overburden waterproof (in case of rain), a plastic sheet should be buried a few inches below the surface and held down with rocks or bricks. Blast doors are designed to absorb the shock wave of a nuclear blast, bending and then returning to their original shape. Climate control Dry earth is a reasonably good thermal insulator, and over several weeks of habitation, a shelter will become too hot for comfort. The simplest form of effective fan to cool a shelter is a wide, heavy frame with flaps that swing in the shelter's doorway and can be swung from hinges on the ceiling. The flaps open in one direction and close in the other, pumping air. Attach a rope, and take turns swinging it. (This is a Kearny Air Pump, or KAP, named after the inventor.) Unfiltered air is safe, since the most dangerous fallout has the consistency of sand or finely ground pumice. Such large particles are not easily ingested into the soft tissues of the body, so extensive filters are not required. Any exposure to fine dust is far less hazardous than exposure to the gamma from the fallout outside the shelter. Dust fine enough to pass the entrance will probably pass through the shelter. Collective NBC protection system Usually blast protection valves are installed at the air-inlet and air outlet to prevent the penetration of blast waves caused by explosions outside of the shelter. A positive pressure (overpressure) is created in the shelter by pulling filtered air into the protected area. The air is filtered by the means of NBC-filters (NBC = Nuclear, Biological and Chemical filters)...
Views: 149435 Jeff Quitney
Aerodynamics: Airfoil Camber, Flaps, Slots-Slats & Drag: "Smoke Lifts" circa 1938 NACA Langley
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net "1930s test conducted at NASA Langley Research Center's 6 by 19 inch Transonic Tunnel during its NACA era." Public domain film from NASA, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The film was silent. I have added music created by myself using the Reaper Digital Audio Workstation and the Proteus VX VST instrument plugin. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camber_(aerodynamics) In aeronautics and aeronautical engineering, camber is the asymmetry between the top and the bottom surfaces of an aerofoil. An aerofoil that is not cambered is called a symmetric aerofoil. The benefits of camber, in contrast to symmetric aerofoils, were discovered and first utilized by Sir George Cayley in the early 19th century... Overview Camber is usually designed into an aerofoil to increase the maximum lift coefficient. This minimises the stalling speed of aircraft using the aerofoil. Aircraft with wings based on cambered aerofoils usually have lower stalling speeds than similar aircraft with wings based on symmetric aerofoils. An aircraft designer may also reduce the camber of the outboard section of the wings to increase the critical angle of attack (stall angle) at the wing tips. When the wing approaches the stall angle this will ensure that the wing root stalls before the tip, giving the aircraft resistance to spinning and maintaining aileron effectiveness close to the stall. Some recent designs use negative camber. One such design is called the supercritical aerofoil. It is used for near-supersonic flight, and produces a higher lift to drag ratio at near supersonic flight than traditional aerofoils. Supercritical aerofoils employ a flattened upper surface, highly cambered (curved) aft section, and greater leading edge radius as compared to traditional aerofoil shapes. These changes delay the onset of wave drag... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flap_(aircraft) Flaps are hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed at which an aircraft can be safely flown and to increase the angle of descent for landing. They shorten takeoff and landing distances. Flaps do this by lowering the stall speed and increasing the drag. Extending flaps increases the camber or curvature of the wing, raising the maximum lift coefficient—or the lift a wing can generate. This allows the aircraft to generate as much lift but at a lower speed, reducing the stalling speed of the aircraft, or the minimum speed at which the aircraft will maintain flight. Extending flaps increases drag which can be beneficial during approach and landing because it slows the aircraft. On some aircraft, a useful side effect of flap deployment is a decrease in aircraft pitch angle which improves the pilot's view of the runway over the nose of the aircraft during landing. However the flaps may also cause pitch-up, depending on the type of flap and the location of the wing. There are many different types of flaps used... The Fowler, Fairey-Youngman and Gouge types of flap increase the planform area of the wing in addition to changing the camber. The larger lifting surface reduces wing loading and allows the aircraft to generate the required lift at a lower speed and reduces stalling speed... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leading_edge_slot A leading edge slot is a fixed aerodynamic feature of the wing of some aircraft to reduce the stall speed and promote good low-speed handling qualities. A leading edge slot is a span-wise gap in each wing, allowing air to flow from below the wing to its upper surface. In this manner they allow flight at higher angles of attack and thus reduce the stall speed... Purpose and development At an angle of attack above about 15° many airfoils enter the stall. Modification of such an airfoil with a fixed leading edge slot can increase the stalling angle to between 22° and 25°. Slots were first developed by Handley Page in 1919 and the first aircraft to fly with them was the experimental H.P.17, a modified Airco DH.9A. The first aircraft fitted with controllable slots was the Handley Page H.P.20. Licensing the design became one of Handley Page's major sources of income in the 1920s. Similar, but retractable, leading edge devices are called slats. When the slat opens, it creates a slot between the slat and the remainder of the wing; retracted, the drag is reduced. A fixed leading edge slot can increase the maximum lift coefficient of an airfoil section by 40%. In conjunction with a slat, the increase in maximum lift coefficient can be 50% or even 60%... Unlike trailing edge flaps, leading edge slots do not increase the lift coefficient at zero angle of attack since they do not alter the camber.
Views: 746462 Jeff Quitney
Car Chassis: " No Ghosts" 1935 Chevrolet Division General Motors; GM's YK Automobile Frame
 
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Auto mechanics playlist: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCED11EACAE477F6C more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net 'A DRAMATIZATION OF THE Y-K FRAME, WITH ESPECIAL ATTENTION TO THE RIGIDITY OF THE FRAME & THE ELIMINATION OF SQUEAKS & RATTLES... Nice "haunted house" imagery in the first few minutes (to a VO refrain of 1934 song "The House is Haunted". Note the phony bats flying in the background.' Includes animation by Max Fleischer (of Popeye & Betty Boop fame). NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktU_nLgfRkU Public domain film from the Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car_frame A frame is the main structure of the chassis of a motor vehicle. All other components fasten to it; a term for this design is body-on-frame construction. In 1920, other than a few cars based on motorcycles, every motor vehicle had a frame. Since then, nearly all cars have shifted to unit-body construction, while nearly all trucks and buses still use frames... Construction There are three main designs for frame rails. Their cross-sections include: - C-shaped - Boxed - Hat C-shape By far the most common, the C-rail has been used on nearly every type of vehicle at one time or another. It is made by taking a flat piece of steel (usually ranging in thickness from 1/8" to 3/16") and rolling both sides over to form a c-shaped beam running the length of the vehicle. Boxed Originally, boxed frames were made by welding two matching c-rails together to form a rectangular tube. Modern techniques, however, use a process similar to making c-rails in that a piece of steel is bent into four sides and then welded where both ends meet. In the 1960s, the boxed frames of conventional American cars were spot-welded here and there down the seam; when turned into NASCAR "stock car" racers, the box was continuously welded from end to end for extra strength (as was that of the Land-Rover from its first series). Hat Hat frames resemble a "U" and may be either right-side-up or inverted with the open area facing down. Not commonly used due to weakness and a propensity to rust, however they can be found on 1936-1954 Chevrolet cars and some Studebakers. Abandoned for a while, the hat frame gained popularity again when companies started welding it to the bottom of unibody cars, in effect creating a boxed frame. Design Features While appearing at first glance as a simple hunk of metal, frames encounter great amounts of stress and are built accordingly. The first issue addressed is beam height, or the height of the vertical side of a frame. The taller the frame, the better it is able to resist vertical flex when force is applied to the top of the frame. This is the reason semi-trucks have taller frame rails than other vehicles instead of just being thicker. Another factor considered when engineering a frame is torsional resistance, or the ability to resist twisting. This, and diamonding (one rail moving backwards or forwards in relation to the other rail), are countered by crossmembers. While hat-shaped crossmembers are the norm, these forces are best countered with "K" or "X"-shaped cross members....
Views: 194262 Jeff Quitney
Auto Mechanics: Transmissions: "Fluid Coupling Principles of Operation" 1954 US Army 13min
 
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NEW VERSION with improved video & sound: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKHeqHMye4k more at http://auto-parts.quickfound.net/ "DEMONSTRATION OF FLUID COUPLING WITH THE USE OF A PLASTIC MODEL IN OPERATION AND A TRUCK IN ACTION." Public domain film from the National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and equalization. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluid_coupling A fluid coupling is a hydrodynamic device used to transmit rotating mechanical power. It has been used in automobile transmissions as an alternative to a mechanical clutch. It also has widespread application in marine and industrial machine drives, where variable speed operation and/or controlled start-up without shock loading of the power transmission system is essential. History The fluid coupling originates from the work of Dr. Hermann Föttinger, who was the chief designer at the AG Vulcan Works in Stettin. His patents from 1905 covered both fluid couplings and torque converters. In 1930 Harold Sinclair, working with the Daimler company, devised a transmission system using a fluid coupling and planetary gearing for buses in an attempt to mitigate the lurching he had experienced while riding on London buses during the 1920s. In 1939 General Motors Corporation introduced Hydramatic drive, the first fully automatic automotive transmission system installed in a mass produced automobile. The Hydramatic employed a fluid coupling. The first Diesel locomotives using fluid couplings were also produced in the 1930s. Overview A fluid coupling consists of three components, plus the hydraulic fluid: - The housing, also known as the shell (which must have an oil tight seal around the drive shafts), contains the fluid and turbines. - Two turbines (fan like components): - One connected to the input shaft; known as the pump or impellor, primary wheel input turbine - The other connected to the output shaft, known as the turbine, output turbine, secondary wheel or runner The driving turbine, known as the 'pump', (or driving torus[note 1]) is rotated by the prime mover, which is typically an internal combustion engine or electric motor. The impellor's motion imparts both outwards linear and rotational motion to the fluid. The hydraulic fluid is directed by the 'pump' whose shape forces the flow in the direction of the 'output turbine' (or driven torus[note 1]). Here, any difference in the angular velocities of 'input stage' and 'output stage' result in a net force on the 'output turbine' causing a torque; thus causing it to rotate in the same direction as the pump. The motion of the fluid is effectively toroidal - travelling in one direction on paths that can be visualised as being on the surface of a torus: - If there is a difference between input and output angular velocities the motion has a component which is circular (i.e. round the rings formed by sections of the torus) - If the input and output stages have identical angular velocities there is no net centripetal force - and the motion of the fluid is circular and co-axial with the axis of rotation (i.e. round the edges of a torus), there is no flow of fluid from one turbine to the other. Stall speed An important characteristic of a fluid coupling is its stall speed. The stall speed is defined as the highest speed at which the pump can turn when the output turbine is locked and maximum input power is applied. Under stall conditions all of the engine's power would be dissipated in the fluid coupling as heat, possibly leading to damage. Step-circuit coupling A modification to the simple fluid coupling is the step-circuit coupling which was formerly manufactured as the "STC coupling" by the Fluidrive Engineering Company. The STC coupling contains a reservoir to which some, but not all, of the oil gravitates when the output shaft is stalled. This reduces the "drag" on the input shaft, resulting in reduced fuel consumption when idling and a reduction in the vehicle's tendency to "creep". When the output shaft begins to rotate, the oil is thrown out of the reservoir by centrifugal force, and returns to the main body of the coupling, so that normal power transmission is restored. Slip A fluid coupling cannot develop output torque when the input and output angular velocities are identical. Hence a fluid coupling cannot achieve 100 percent power transmission efficiency. Due to slippage that will occur in any fluid coupling under load, some power will always be lost in fluid friction and turbulence, and dissipated as heat. The very best efficiency a fluid coupling can achieve is 94 percent, that is for every 100 revolutions input, there will be 94 revolutions output. Like other fluid dynamical devices, its efficiency tends to increase gradually with increasing scale, as measured by the Reynolds number...
Views: 187797 Jeff Quitney
How Boilers Work 1955 US Navy; Steam Cycle & Destroyer Escort Boiler Operation
 
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US Navy Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLA40407C12E5E35A7 more at http://hardware.quickfound.net/ US Navy Training Film MN-9223a "Boilers and their Operation: How Boilers Work" "Practically all modern Naval ships of the Destroyer class or larger are powered by steam. Steam made in the ship's own steam plant propels the ship, generates electricity, and powers auxiliary machinery..." Produced for the US Navy by Reid H. Ray Film Industries. Public domain film from the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler_(power_generation) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were commonly termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure (7–2,000 kPa or 1–290 psi) but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator. A boiler or steam generator is used wherever a source of steam is required. The form and size depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping. A notable exception is the steam-powered fireless locomotive, where separately-generated steam is transferred to a receiver (tank) on the locomotive... The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. However it needs be treated separately, as to some extent a variety of generator types can be combined with a variety of engine units. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling. This produces saturated steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water. The higher the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced can then either be used immediately to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature; this notably reduces suspended water content making a given volume of steam produce more work and creates a greater temperature gradient, which helps reduce the potential to form condensation. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can then either be evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, the role of which is to warm the feed water before it reaches the boiler...
Views: 35093 Jeff Quitney
Electronics: Introduction to LC Oscillators circa 1974 US Air Force Training Film
 
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more at: http://scitech.quickfound.net "In an LC oscillator circuit, the filter is a tuned circuit consisting of an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected together." US Air Force Training Film TVK 30-536 Electronics playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLAA9B0175C3E15B47 Public domain film from the US National Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_oscillator An electronic oscillator is an electronic circuit that produces a periodic, oscillating electronic signal, often a sine wave or a square wave. Oscillators convert direct current (DC) from a power supply to an alternating current signal. They are widely used in many electronic devices. Common examples of signals generated by oscillators include signals broadcast by radio and television transmitters, clock signals that regulate computers and quartz clocks, and the sounds produced by electronic beepers and video games. Oscillators are often characterized by the frequency of their output signal: A low-frequency oscillator (LFO) is an electronic oscillator that generates a frequency below ≈20 Hz. This term is typically used in the field of audio synthesizers, to distinguish it from an audio frequency oscillator. An audio oscillator produces frequencies in the audio range, about 16 Hz to 20 kHz. An RF oscillator produces signals in the radio frequency (RF) range of about 100 kHz to 100 GHz. Oscillators designed to produce a high-power AC output from a DC supply are usually called inverters. There are two main types of electronic oscillator: the linear or harmonic oscillator and the nonlinear or relaxation oscillator... Harmonic oscillator The harmonic, or linear, oscillator produces a sinusoidal output. There are two types: Feedback oscillator The most common form of linear oscillator is an electronic amplifier such as a transistor or op amp connected in a feedback loop with its output fed back into its input through a frequency selective electronic filter to provide positive feedback. When the power supply to the amplifier is first switched on, electronic noise in the circuit provides a signal to get oscillations started. The noise travels around the loop and is amplified and filtered until very quickly it becomes a sine wave at a single frequency. Feedback oscillator circuits can be classified according to the type of frequency selective filter they use in the feedback loop: In an RC oscillator circuit, the filter is a network of resistors and capacitors. RC oscillators are mostly used to generate lower frequencies, for example in the audio range. Common types of RC oscillator circuits are the phase shift oscillator and the Wien bridge oscillator. In an LC oscillator circuit, the filter is a tuned circuit (often called a tank circuit; the tuned circuit is a resonator) consisting of an inductor (L) and capacitor (C) connected together. Charge flows back and forth between the capacitor's plates through the inductor, so the tuned circuit can store electrical energy oscillating at its resonant frequency. There are small losses in the tank circuit, but the amplifier compensates for those losses and supplies the power for the output signal. LC oscillators are often used at radio frequencies, when a tunable frequency source is necessary, such as in signal generators, tunable radio transmitters and the local oscillators in radio receivers. Typical LC oscillator circuits are the Hartley, Colpitts and Clapp circuits. In a crystal oscillator circuit the filter is a piezoelectric crystal (commonly a quartz crystal). The crystal mechanically vibrates as a resonator, and its frequency of vibration determines the oscillation frequency. Crystals have very high Q-factor and also better temperature stability than tuned circuits, so crystal oscillators have much better frequency stability than LC or RC oscillators. Crystal oscillators are the most common type of linear oscillator, used to stabilize the frequency of most radio transmitters, and to generate the clock signal in computers and quartz clocks. Crystal oscillators often use the same circuits as LC oscillators, with the crystal replacing the tuned circuit; the Pierce oscillator circuit is also commonly used. Quartz crystals are generally limited to frequencies of 30 MHz or below. Other types of resonator, dielectric resonators and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, are used to control higher frequency oscillators, up into the microwave range. For example, SAW oscillators are used to generate the radio signal in cell phones...
Views: 195750 Jeff Quitney
Aircraft Carrier Landings: "Sea Legs" circa 1980 Grumman US Navy
 
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more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html "This documentary takes a close look at naval aviation on a modern aircraft carrier. It features extensive footage of the launching and recovery of carrier aircraft, including super-slow-motion footage of landings. A successful carrier landing, known as a "trap" by naval aviators, is a one of the most difficult and dangerous duties in the life of any aviator. Source: Naval History and Heritage Command, Photographic Section, UMO-11." Public domain film from the the US Navy, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). AIRCRAFT CARRIERS PLAYLIST: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLFA956A25F3C04DCF http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_United_States_Navy_carrier_air_operations ...Modern United States Navy aircraft carrier flight operations are highly evolved, based on experiences dating back to 1922 with the USS Langley. Knowledge of and adherence to procedures by all participants is critical... Everyone associated with the flight deck has a specific job, which is indicated by the color of his deck jersey, float coat and helmet. Rank is also denoted by the pattern of trousers worn by flight deck crew: - Woodland camouflage pants -- Denotes junior sailors and petty officers. - Khaki or Desert camouflage pants -- Denotes chief petty, warrant and commissioned officers. This keeps in line with the traditional khaki color of CPO and officer service uniforms. Air Officer Also known as the air boss, the air officer (along with his assistant, the miniboss) is responsible for all aspects of operations involving aircraft including the hangar deck, the flight deck, and airborne aircraft out to 5 nautical miles from the carrier. From his perch in Primary Flight Control (PriFly, or the "tower"), he and his assistant maintain visual control of all aircraft operating in the carrier control zone (surface to infinity, out to 5 nmi), and aircraft desiring to operate within the control zone must obtain his approval prior to entry. The normal working jersey color of an air boss is yellow, but an Air Boss may wear any color jersey, as he represents everyone working on the flight deck, hangar bay and aviation fuels personnel... Landing Signal Officer The Landing Signal Officer (LSO) is a qualified, experienced pilot who is responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. LSOs ensure that approaching aircraft are properly configured, and they monitor aircraft glidepath angle, altitude, and lineup. They communicate with landing pilots via voice radio and light signals. Arresting Gear Officer The Arresting Gear Officer (AGO) is responsible for arresting gear operation, settings, and monitoring landing area deck status (the deck is either clear and ready to land aircraft or foul and not ready for landing). Arresting gear engines are set to apply varying resistance (weight setting) to the arresting cable based on the type of aircraft landing... Approach The Carrier Controlled Approach is analogous to ground-controlled approach using the ship's precision approach radar. Pilots are told (via voice radio) where they are in relation to glideslope and final bearing (e.g., "above glideslope, right of centerline"). The pilot then makes a correction and awaits further information from the controller... Regardless of the case recovery or approach type, the final portion of the landing (3/4 mile to touchdown) is flown visually. Line up with the landing area is achieved by lining up painted lines on the landing area centerline with a set of lights that drops from the back of the flight deck... If an aircraft is pulled off the approach... or is waved off by the LSO... or misses all the arresting wires ("bolters"), the pilot climbs straight ahead to 1,200 feet to the "bolter/wave-off pattern" and waits for instructions from approach control... Immediately upon touchdown, the pilot advances the throttles to full power so that a touch and go (known as a "Bolter") can be executed in the event that all trap wires have been missed. Occasionally, pilots will opt to advance the throttles to maximum power (full afterburner). Ideally, the tailhook catches the target wire (or cross deck pendant), which abruptly slows the aircraft from approach speed to a full stop in about two seconds. As the aircraft's forward motion stops, the throttles are reduced to idle, and the hook is raised on the aircraft director's signal. The aircraft director then directs the aircraft to clear the landing area in preparation for the next landing...
Views: 390169 Jeff Quitney
Man in 457 mph Wind: "Human Tolerance to Wind Blasts" 1946 NACA  Langley Research Center
 
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more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/ "Test conducted in 1946 where a human subject was exposed to blasts of air. The test was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's 8 ft High Speed Tunnel." Silent. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are commonly classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, and their effect. The strongest observed winds on a planet in our solar system occur on Neptune and Saturn. In meteorology, winds are often referred to according to their strength, and the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration (around one minute) are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale, storm, hurricane, and typhoon. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth. The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, and the rotation of the planet (Coriolis effect). Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land breeze cycle can define local winds; in areas that have variable terrain, mountain and valley breezes can dominate local winds. In human civilization, wind has inspired mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, and provided a power source for mechanical work, electricity and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, and powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft. When winds become strong, trees and man-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes... http://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/641 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel As interest in the field of high-speed aerodynamics increased in the early 1930s, Langley's existing wind tunnels proved too small and underpowered for effective high-speed aircraft testing. Understanding that a new facility would give U.S. engineers a decided advantage in the aeronautical field, Langley's director of research George W. Lewis authorized the design and construction of a larger high speed wind tunnel in 1933. Construction of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST) was funded by the Public Works Administration (PWA) and completed in 1936 at a cost of $266,000... The world's first large high speed tunnel, the HST proved vital during World War II... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Stapp#Wind-blast_experiments ...Wind-blast experiments Stapp also participated in wind-blast experiments, in which he flew in jet aircraft at high speeds to determine whether or not it was safe for a pilot to remain with his aircraft if the canopy should accidentally blow off. Stapp stayed with his aircraft at a speed of 570 mph (917 km/h), with the canopy removed, and suffered no injurious effects from the wind blasts. Among these experiments was one of the first high-altitude skydives, executed by Stapp himself. He also supervised research programs in the fields of human factors in escape from aircraft and human tolerance to abrupt acceleration and deceleration...
Views: 303427 Jeff Quitney
Airplane Propellers: Principles and Types 1941 US Army Air Corps Pilot Training Film
 
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Pilot Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLCA6387BA013F9A4D USAF Training Film playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL8F26D920AA815835 more at http://scitech.quickfound.net/aviation_news_and_search.html "Until the days of supersonic speed and jet propulsion of rocket ships, the propeller is a relatively efficient method of moving our airplanes through the air up to speeds of 5 to 6 hundred miles per hour. In general, the size of a propeller is dependent upon the power of the engine..." US Army Air Corps Pilot Training Film TF1-246 Originally a public domain film from the US Army Air Corps, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propeller_(aeronautics) Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ An aircraft propeller, or airscrew, converts rotary motion from an engine or other mechanical power source, to provide propulsive force. It comprises a rotating power-driven hub, to which are attached several radial airfoil-section blades such that the whole assembly rotates about a longitudinal axis. The blade pitch may be fixed, manually variable to a few set positions, or of the automatically-variable "constant-speed" type. The propeller attaches to the power source's driveshaft either directly or, especially on larger designs, through reduction gearing. Most early aircraft propellers were carved by hand from solid or laminated wood, while metal construction later became popular. More recently, composite materials are becoming increasingly used. Propellers are only suitable for use at subsonic airspeeds up to around 480 mph (770 km/h), as above this speed the blade tip speed begins to go supersonic, with the consequent shockwaves causing high drag and other mechanical difficulties... The earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. This bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor between ones hands. The spinning creates lift, and the toy flies when released. The 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong (抱朴子 "Master who Embraces Simplicity") reportedly describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in Renaissance paintings and other works... Theory and design of aircraft propellers A well-designed propeller typically has an efficiency of around 80% when operating in the best regime. The efficiency of the propeller is influenced by the angle of attack (α). This is defined as α = Φ - θ, where θ is the helix angle (the angle between the resultant relative velocity and the blade rotation direction) and Φ is the blade pitch angle. Very small pitch and helix angles give a good performance against resistance but provide little thrust, while larger angles have the opposite effect. The best helix angle is when the blade is acting as a wing producing much more lift than drag. Angle of attack is similar to advance ratio, for propellers...
Views: 32230 Jeff Quitney
Jetsons Before "The Jetsons": "Your Safety First" 1956 Automobile Manufacturers Association
 
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Animation, Cartoons, Art, Artists & Arts Miscellany playlist... https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL7FAC5AA4A21B10C0 Automobile Transportation playlist: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL_hX5wLdhf_Ko5IvhQnWzOIJg_yfo2gGR more at http://quickfound.net/ A cartoon look back at the history of safer cars from the Jetson-like world of "Futureville," The date on a newspaper in this animation is October 5, 2000 (headline: "Mars Sets Off New Q-Bomb"). Produced by John Sutherland. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Originally a public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automobile_Manufacturers_Association Wikipedia license: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ The Automobile Manufacturers Association was a trade group of automobile manufacturers which operated under various names in the United States from 1911 to 1999. A different group called the Automobile Manufacturers' Association was active in the very early 1900s, but then dissolved. Another early group was the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers, formed in 1903 and which was involved in licensing and collecting royalties from the George Baldwin Selden engine patent. Henry Ford effectively defeated the patent in court in 1911 and the Association of Licensed Automobile Manufacturers dissolved. However, the same manufacturers regrouped later in 1911 and formed the Automobile Board of Trade. In 1913, this became the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce. In 1934, this group renamed itself to the Automobile Manufacturers Association. This was the name the group had the longest and became the best known by. It focused upon establishing a code for fair competition. In 1939, it moved its headquarters from New York City, where it had been close to bankers, to Detroit, where the manufacturers were all based. The organization had a budget of $1 million at the time. During the early stages of World War II, the association played a role in adapting American automotive manufacturing capabilities towards arms production efforts, especially regarding large aircraft engines. Within hours of the December 7, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, the association invited all companies in the larger automotive industry, regardless of whether they were association members, to join a new cooperative undertaking, the Automotive Council for War Production. Some 654 manufacturing companies joined, and produced nearly $29 billion in output, including tremendous numbers of motorized vehicles, tanks, engines, and other products for the Allied military forces. Between a fifth and a quarter of all U.S. wartime production was accounted for by the automotive industry. In 1950, the association published the book, Freedom's Arsenal: The Story of the Automotive Council for War Production, to document this achievement. In August 1972, the group changed its name to the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association, to reflect the growing importance of truck makers... In late 1992, the group expelled Honda, Volvo, and heavy truck makers and changed its name to the American Automobile Manufacturers Association... The American Automobile Manufacturers Association was... phased out in January 1999, and a new and different successor group, the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, was formed that included a large number of foreign-owned manufacturers... http://articles.latimes.com/2001/feb/27/local/me-30915 John Sutherland; Acclaimed for Artistry of His Industrial Films Obituaries February 27, 2001|ELAINE WOO | TIMES STAFF WRITER John Elliot Sutherland, an award-winning industrial and educational filmmaker whose subjects ranged from cancer and chemistry to General Electric and the New York Stock Exchange, has died. He was 90, and died Feb. 17 in Van Nuys after a short illness, according to his son, Eric, of Chicago. Sutherland began making live-action training films for the military during World War II. His success in that led to the formation of John Sutherland Productions in Los Angeles, which concentrated on documentaries and industrial films during the 1950s and 1960s. He produced about 20 movies a year, such as "A Is for Atom" for General Electric...
Views: 183665 Jeff Quitney